Univ South Bohemia, Fac Sci, Branisovska 1760, Ceske Budejovice 37005 - Czech Republic
 Univ Fed Sao Carlos, Dept Genet & Evolucao, Rod Washington Luiz Km 235 Cep, BR-13565905 Sao Carlos - Brazil
 Charles Univ Prague, Fac Sci, Dept Ecol, Vinicna 7, Prague 12844 - Czech Republic
Total Affiliations: 4
PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES;
SEP 13 2021.
Web of Science Citations:
Despite decades of cytogenetic and genomic research of dynamic sex chromosome evolution in teleost fishes, multiple sex chromosomes have been largely neglected. In this review, we compiled available data on teleost multiple sex chromosomes, identified major trends in their evolution and suggest further trajectories in their investigation. In a compiled dataset of 440 verified records of fish sex chromosomes, we counted 75 multiple sex chromosome systems with 60 estimated independent origins. We showed that male-heterogametic systems created by Y-autosome fusion predominate and that multiple sex chromosomes are over-represented in the order Perciformes. We documented a striking difference in patterns of differentiation of sex chromosomes between male and female heterogamety and hypothesize that faster W sex chromosome differentiation may constrain sex chromosome turnover in female-heterogametic systems. We also found no significant association between the mechanism of multiple sex chromosome formation and percentage of uni-armed chromosomes in teleost karyotypes. Last but not least, we hypothesized that interaction between fish populations, which differ in their sex chromosomes, can drive the evolution of multiple sex chromosomes in fishes. This underlines the importance of broader inter-population sampling in studies of fish sex chromosomes. This article is part of the theme issue `Challenging the paradigm in sex chromosome evolution: empirical and theoretical insights with a focus on vertebrates (Part II)'. (AU)