Ailin O'Donohoe, M. E.
Celeste Luna, Maria
Pereyra, Martin O.
Basso, Nestor G.
Brunetti, Andres E.
Hermida, Gladys N.
Total Authors: 7
 Univ Buenos Aires, Lab Biol Anfibios Histol Anim, Dept Biodiversidad & Biol Expt, Fac Ciencias Exactas & Nat, Av Int Guiraldes 2160, Pab 2, 4 Piso, C1428EGA, Caba - Argentina
 Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, C1033AAJ, Buenos Aires, Caba - Argentina
 Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Museo Argentino Ciencias Nat Bernardino Rivadavia, Div Herpetol, Av Angel Gallardo 470, C1405DJR, Caba - Argentina
 Univ Nacl Misiones UNaM, Inst Biol Subtrop IBS, Lab Genet Evolut Claudio J Bidau, CONICET, Felix de Azara 1552, N3300LQH, Posadas, Misiones - Argentina
 Inst Diversidad & Evoluc Austral IDEAus CONICET, Blvd Almirante Brown 2915, U9120ACF, Puerto Madryn, Chubut - Argentina
 Univ Sao Paulo, Fac Ciencias Farmaceut Ribeirao Preto, Dept Ciencias Biomol, Nucleo Pesquisa Prod Nat & Sintet NPPNS, Av Cafe S-N, BR-14040900 Ribeirao Preto, SP - Brazil
Total Affiliations: 6
Web of Science Citations:
The parotoid macrogland in toads of the family Bufonidae is a complex structure mainly related to a defensive function. It presents considerable variability among species regarding their morphology, chemical nature of the glandular content, and secretion release mechanisms. This macrogland is formed by a group of large syncytial glands (LSGs) that like any other dermal gland, comprise a pore, a secretory duct, a neck, and adenomere. Previous works have shown that the neck is a region with a high morphological variability among species. Here, we study the secretory duct and neck of LSGs from parotoids in nine bufonids using light and electron microscopy, linking the morphological variation to what is currently known about secretion discharge mechanisms in this family. Our results show that differences in the LSGs are mainly associated with pore shape, duct-neck length, the presence of epithelial plug, and the presence/absence of two accessory glands, namely intraepithelial and duct glands. Besides, two types of duct glands were identified according to whether their secretion is released to the epidermal surface or into the most external portion of the LSGs neck. Summarizing this information, we defined four morphological patterns for LSGs necks, two of them lacking associated duct glands, and the others differing on the presence of one or two types of duct glands. We found a possible relationship between gland morphology and the secretion release mechanisms in different toad species, where the length of the duct and neck, and the presence or absence of a conical plug, could be relevant to the release mechanism in form of droplets or spray. 0 2021 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved. (AU)