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The skin and the defense of toads (Bufonidae) against predators and desiccation

Grant number: 14/15334-4
Support Opportunities:Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate
Effective date (Start): November 01, 2014
Effective date (End): December 31, 2016
Field of knowledge:Biological Sciences - Morphology - Histology
Acordo de Cooperação: Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES)
Principal Investigator:Carlos Alberto Gonçalves Silva Jared
Grantee:Pedro Luiz Mailho Fontana
Host Institution: Instituto Butantan. Secretaria da Saúde (São Paulo - Estado). São Paulo , SP, Brazil
Associated scholarship(s):15/00999-3 - Comparative morphology of integument and cutaneous glands of species of toads and salamanders from South America and North America, BE.EP.DR


In order to survive in adverse environmental conditions, amphibians developed behavioral, physiological, morphological and functional adaptations that act together to reduce water loss by evaporation through the skin. Amphibian skin is characterized by the presence of glands scattered throughout the body, producing toxins mostly used in the defense against predators. Over the past 30 years, knowledge about the amphibian skin, especially in toads (Bufonidae), has been expanding through toxinological and morphophysiological studies mainly performed by the group of the Cell Biology Laboratory of the Instituto Butantan. However, many aspects about the morphology (cell biology, histology and ultrastructure) and functioning of the skin glands and about the biochemistry of the cutaneous secretions, related to the adaptations to the terrestrial life of toads, remain poorly studied. This work aims at the study of the defense against predators and desiccation through the analysis of the skin of four species of Bufonidae from the group Rhinella marina inhabiting different biomes, using a comparative and interdisciplinary approach. (AU)

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Scientific publications (7)
(References retrieved automatically from Web of Science and SciELO through information on FAPESP grants and their corresponding numbers as mentioned in the publications by the authors)
REGIS-ALVES, EDUARDO; JARED, SIMONE G. S.; MAURICIO, BEATRIZ; MAILHO-FONTANA, PEDRO L.; ANTONIAZZI, MARTA M.; FLEURY-CURADO, MARIA CECILIA; BRODIE, JR., EDMUND D.; JARED, CARLOS. Structural cutaneous adaptations for defense in toad (Rhinella icterica) parotoid macroglands. Toxicon, v. 137, p. 128-134, . (14/15334-4, 15/00999-3)
MAILHO-FONTANA, PEDRO LUIZ; TITON, BRAZ; ANTONIAZZI, MARTA MARIA; GOMES, FERNANDO RIBEIRO; JARED, CARLOS. kin and poison glands in toads (Rhinella) and their role in defence and water balanc. ACTA ZOOLOGICA, v. 103, n. 1, p. 112-128, . (17/10488-1, 14/15334-4, 10/16804-3)
MAILHO-FONTANA, PEDRO LUIZ; JARED, CARLOS; ANTONIAZZI, MARTA MARIA; SCIANI, JULIANA MOZER; ARVALHO PIMENTA, DANIEL C.; STOKES, AMBER N.; GRANT, TARAN; BRODIE, III, EDMUND D.; BRODIE, JR., EDMUND D.. Variations in tetrodotoxin levels in populations of Taricha granulosa are expressed in the morphology of their cutaneous glands. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, v. 9, . (15/00999-3, 14/18703-0, 17/10488-1, 18/15425-0, 18/03265-9, 12/10000-5, 14/15334-4)
MAILHO-FONTANA, PEDRO L.; ANTONIAZZI, MARTA M.; BARROS-BATTESTI, DARCI M.; JARED, CARLOS; CAMPBELL, JONATHAN A.; BRODIE, JR., EDMUND D.. Toad Parotoid Pores Shelter Tick Larvae. South American Journal of Herpetology, v. 11, n. 2, p. 110-113, . (14/15334-4, 15/00999-3)
MAILHO-FONTANA, PEDRO L.; ANTONIAZZI, MARTA MARIA; RODRIGUES, ISABELA; SCIANI, JULIANA M.; PIMENTA, DANIEL CARVALHO; BRODIE, JR., EDMUND D.; RODRIGUES, MIGUEL TREFAUT; JARED, CARLOS. Parotoid, radial, and tibial macroglands of the frog Odontophrynus cultripes: Differences and similarities with toads. Toxicon, v. 129, p. 123-133, . (15/00999-3, 14/15334-4)
MAILHO-FONTANA, PEDRO LUIZ; ANTONIAZZI, MARTA MARIA; SCIANI, JULIANA MOZER; PIMENTA, DANIEL CARVALHO; BARBARO, KATIA CRISTINA; JARED, CARLOS. Morphological and biochemical characterization of the cutaneous poison glands in toads (Rhinella marina group) from different environments. Frontiers in Zoology, v. 15, . (14/15334-4)
MAILHO-FONTANA, PEDRO LUIZ; TITON, BRAZ; ANTONIAZZI, MARTA MARIA; GOMES, FERNANDO RIBEIRO; JARED, CARLOS. Skin and poison glands in toads (Rhinella) and their role in defence and water balance. ACTA ZOOLOGICA, . (17/10488-1, 10/16804-3, 14/15334-4)

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