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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

Dependence of partitioning of model implicit and explicit precipitation on horizontal resolution

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Author(s):
Gomes, Jorge Luis [1] ; Chou, Sin Chan [1]
Total Authors: 2
Affiliation:
[1] Natl Inst Space Res INPE, Ctr Weather Predict & Climate Studies CPTEC, BR-12630000 Cachoeira Paulista, SP - Brazil
Total Affiliations: 1
Document type: Review article
Source: METEOROLOGY AND ATMOSPHERIC PHYSICS; v. 106, n. 1-2, p. 1-18, FEB 2010.
Web of Science Citations: 12
Abstract

Model precipitation can be produced implicitly through convective parameterization schemes or explicitly through cloud microphysics schemes. These two precipitation production schemes control the spatial and temporal distribution of precipitation and consequently can yield distinct vertical profiles of heating and moistening in the atmosphere. The partition between implicit and explicit precipitation can be different as the model changes resolutions. Within the range of mesoscale resolutions (about 20 km) and cumulus scale, hybrid solutions are suggested, in which cumulus convection parameterization is acting together with the explicit form of representation. In this work, it is proposed that, as resolution increases, the convective scheme should convert less condensed water into precipitation. Part of the condensed water is made available to the cloud microphysics scheme and another part evaporates. At grid sizes smaller than 3 km, the convective scheme is still active in removing convective instability, but precipitation is produced by cloud microphysics. The Eta model version using KF cumulus parameterization was applied in this study. To evaluate the quantitative precipitation forecast, the Eta model with the KF scheme was used to simulate precipitation associated with the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) and Cold Front (CF) events. Integrations with increasing horizontal resolutions were carried out for up to 5 days for the SACZ cases and up to 2 days for the CF cases. The precipitation partition showed that most of precipitation was generated by the implicit scheme. As the grid size decreased, the implicit precipitation increased and the explicit decreased. However, as model horizontal resolution increases, it is expected that precipitation be represented more explicitly. In the KF scheme, the fraction of liquid water or ice, generated by the scheme, which is converted into rain or snow is controlled by a parameter S (1). An additional parameter was introduced into KF scheme and the parameter acts to evaporate a fraction of liquid water or ice left in the model grid by S (1) and return moisture to the resolved scale. An F parameter was introduced to combine the effects of S (1) and S (2) parameters. The F parameter gives a measure of the conversion of cloud liquid water or ice to convective precipitation. A function dependent on the horizontal resolution was introduced into the KF scheme to influence the implicit and explicit precipitation partition. The explicit precipitation increased with model resolution. This function reduced the positive precipitation bias at all thresholds and for the studied weather systems. With increased horizontal resolution, the maximum precipitation area was better positioned and the total precipitation became closer to observations. Skill scores for all events at different forecast ranges showed precipitation forecast improvement with the inclusion of the function F. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 04/09649-0 - Predictability study of heavy rainfall events in the Serra do Mar
Grantee:Chou Sin Chan
Support type: Research Projects - Thematic Grants