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Cloud processes of the main precipitation systems in Brazil: a contribution to cloud resolving modeling and to the GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement)

Grant number: 09/15235-8
Support type:Research Projects - Thematic Grants
Duration: July 01, 2010 - June 30, 2015
Field of knowledge:Physical Sciences and Mathematics - Geosciences - Meteorology
Principal researcher:Luiz Augusto Toledo Machado
Grantee:Luiz Augusto Toledo Machado
Home Institution: Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE). Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovações (Brasil). São José dos Campos , SP, Brazil
Pesquisadores principais:
Gilberto Fernando Fisch
Assoc. researchers:Carlos Augusto Morales Rodriguez ; Carlos Frederico de Angelis ; Maria Assunção Faus da Silva Dias
Associated grant(s):14/08472-1 - 15th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity, AR.EXT
12/11441-5 - Validation and improvements of brain precipitation satellite estimator using CHUVA field campaign dataset and passive microwave radiometer data in the Megha-Tropiques satellite context, AV.EXT
12/10878-0 - 16th International Conference on Clouds and Precipitation, AR.EXT
11/13673-8 - Radar and electrical studies of deep convection in Vael do Paraíba during CHUVA, AV.EXT
Associated scholarship(s):15/11987-6 - Summer storms features in São Paulo Metropolitan Region during CHUVA-GLM Vale do Paraíba experiment, BP.IC
14/08615-7 - Precipitation formation processes: a study about microphysics, aerosols interactions and cloud life cycle using radar and airplane data, BP.DR
13/10470-4 - Interanual and interdecadal evolution of local thunderstorms in São Paulo: the role of the sea breeze, BP.IC
11/07994-6 - Parameterization of non-precipitating shallow cumulus, BP.IC
11/03093-4 - Retrieval of Atmospheric Parameters using Surface-Based Microwave Radiometry, BP.PD


The physical process inside the clouds is one of the most unknown components of the weather and climate system. A description of the cloud processes through the use of standard meteorological parameters in numerical models has to be strongly improved to accurately describe the characteristics of hydrometeors, the latent heating profiles, the radiative balance, the air entrainment and the cloud updrafts and downdrafts. Numerical models have been improved to run at higher spatial resolutions where it is necessary to describe explicit these cloud processes. For instance, to analyze the effects of global warming in a given region is necessary to perform simulations considering all these cloud processes described above. Another important application that needs to have this knowledge is the precipitation estimation by satellite. The Brazilian space program is planning to launch, in 2014 a satellite to measure precipitation, which will be part of the GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement) constellation program. Warm clouds are responsible for a large amount of the precipitation in the tropics, especially in coastal regions. This cloud type is little studied and is not considered in satellite rainfall retrievals. This project will carry out field experiments at seven sites to investigate the different precipitation regimes in Brazil. To study these precipitation regimes, the field campaigns will make use of dual polarization radar, lidar, microwave radiometers, disdrometer, Radiosonde and various other instruments. The analysis will be performed considering the microphysical evolution and the cloud life cycle, the different precipitation estimation algorithms, the development of thunderstorms and lightning formation, the processes in the boundary layer and cloud microphysics modeling. This project intends to progress in the knowledge of the cloud processes to reduce the uncertainties in the precipitation estimation, mainly from warm clouds and consequently improving the knowledge of the water and energy budget and the cloud microphysics. This research project will carry studies on climate and physical processes by the means of conventional and special observations in order to create a database that can describe the cloud processes of the main precipitating system in Brazil. Accordingly, this proposal aims the development of a database that can be carried out to improve the remote sensing precipitation estimation thus validating and improving the cloud microphysical parameterization in the cloud models. This project will especially focus on the warm cloud precipitation produced by different types of convection. (AU)

Articles published in Pesquisa FAPESP Magazine about the research grant:
De la polvareda al temporal 
From the earth to the sky 
An ocean in the skies  
Un océano en los aires 
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Scientific publications (52)
(References retrieved automatically from Web of Science and SciELO through information on FAPESP grants and their corresponding numbers as mentioned in the publications by the authors)
CAMPONOGARA, GLAUBER; DA SILVA DIAS, MARIA ASSUNCAO FAUS; CARRIO, GUSTAVO G.. 4 Biomass burning CCN enhance the dynamics of a mesoscale convective system over the La Plata Basin: a numerical approach. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, v. 18, n. 3, p. 2081-2096, . (14/05351-9, 12/08115-9, 09/15235-8)
MACHADO, LUIZ A. T.; CHABOUREAU, JEAN-PIERRE. Effect of Turbulence Parameterization on Assessment of Cloud Organization. MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW, v. 143, n. 8, p. 3246-3262, . (09/15235-8)
CECCHINI, MICAEL A.; MACHADO, LUIZ A. T.; ANDREAE, MEINRAT O.; MARTIN, SCOT T.; ALBRECHT, RACHEL I.; ARTAXO, PAULO; BARBOSA, HENRIQUE M. J.; BORRMANN, STEPHAN; FUETTERER, DANIEL; JURKAT, TINA; et al. Sensitivities of Amazonian clouds to aerosols and updraft speed. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, v. 17, n. 16, p. 10037-10050, . (13/05014-0, 14/08615-7, 09/15235-8, 14/21189-7)
BRAGA, RAMON CAMPOS; VILA, DANIEL ALEJANDRO. Investigating the Ice Water Path in Convective Cloud Life Cycles to Improve Passive Microwave Rainfall Retrievals. JOURNAL OF HYDROMETEOROLOGY, v. 15, n. 4, p. 1486-1497, . (09/15235-8)
BARBOSA, H. M. J.; BARJA, B.; PAULIQUEVIS, T.; GOUVEIA, D. A.; ARTAXO, P.; CIRINO, G. G.; SANTOS, R. M. N.; OLIVEIRA, A. B.. A permanent Raman lidar station in the Amazon: description, characterization, and first results. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, v. 7, n. 6, p. 1745-1762, . (12/16100-1, 09/15235-8, 12/14437-9)
SARAIVA, I.; SILVA DIAS, M. A. F.; MORALES, C. A. R.; SARAIVA, J. M. B.. Regional Variability of Rain Clouds in the Amazon Basin as Seen by a Network of Weather Radars. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, v. 55, n. 12, p. 2657-2675, . (09/15235-8)
GONCALVES, W. A.; MACHADO, L. A. T.; KIRSTETTER, P-E. Influence of biomass aerosol on precipitation over the Central Amazon: an observational study. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, v. 15, n. 12, p. 6789-6800, . (09/15235-8)
GERKEN, TOBIAS; WEI, DANDAN; CHASE, RANDY J.; FUENTES, JOSE D.; SCHUMACHER, COURTNEY; MACHADO, LUIZ A. T.; ANDREOLI, RITA V.; CHAMECKI, MARCELO; FERREIRA DE SOUZA, RODRIGO A.; FREIRE, LIVIA S.; et al. Downward transport of ozone rich air and implications for atmospheric chemistry in the Amazon rainforest. Atmospheric Environment, v. 124, n. A, p. 64-76, . (09/15235-8)
WENDISCH, MANFRED; POESCHL, ULRICH; ANDREAE, MEINRAT O.; MACHADO, LUIZ A. T.; ALBRECHT, RACHEL; SCHLAGER, HANS; ROSENFELD, DANIEL; MARTIN, SCOT T.; ABDELMOMONEM, AHMED; AFCHINE, ARMIN; et al. ACRIDICON-CHUVA CAMPAIGN Studying Tropical Deep Convective Clouds and Precipitation over Amazonia Using the New German Research Aircraft HALO. BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY, v. 97, n. 10, p. 1885-1908, . (13/05014-0, 09/15235-8)
CALHEIROS, ALAN J. P.; MACHADO, LUIZ A. T.. Cloud and rain liquid water statistics in the CHUVA campaign. ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH, v. 144, n. SI, p. 126-140, . (09/15235-8)
LIMA, WAGNER F. A.; MACHADO, LUIZ A. T.. Cloud reflectivity profile classification using MSG/SEVIRI infrared multichannel and TRMM data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, v. 34, n. 12, p. 4384-4405, . (09/15235-8)
KRISNA, TRISMONO C.; WENDISCH, MANFRED; EHRLICH, ANDRE; JAEKEL, EVELYN; FRANK, WERNER A.; WEIGEL, RALF; BORRMANN, STEPHAN; MAHNKE, CHRISTOPH; POESCHL, ULRICH; ANDREAE, MEINRAT O.; et al. Comparing airborne and satellite retrievals of cloud optical thickness and particle effective radius using a spectral radiance ratio technique: two case studies for cirrus and deep convective clouds. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, v. 18, n. 7, p. 4439-4462, . (13/05014-0, 09/15235-8)
WANG, JIAN; KREJCI, RADOVAN; GIANGRANDEL, SCOTT; KUANG, CHONGAI; BARBOSA, HENRIQUE M. J.; BRITO, JOEL; CARBONE, SAMARA; CHI, XUGUANG; COMSTOCK, JENNIFER; DITAS, FLORIAN; et al. Amazon boundary layer aerosol concentration sustained by vertical transport during rainfall. Nature, v. 539, n. 7629, p. 416-419, . (13/05014-0, 09/15235-8, 13/50510-5)
MATTOS, ENRIQUE V.; MACHADO, LUIZ A. T.; WILLIAMS, EARLE R.; GOODMAN, STEVEN J.; BLAKESLEE, RICHARD J.; BAILEY, JEFFREY C.. Electrification life cycle of incipient thunderstorms. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, v. 122, n. 8, p. 4670-4697, . (09/15235-8, 13/04292-6, 11/13673-8, 15/14497-0, 11/18217-0)
DOS SANTOS, MERCEL J.; SILVA DIAS, MARIA A. F.; FREITAS, EDMILSON D.. Influence of local circulations on wind, moisture, and precipitation close to Manaus City, Amazon Region, Brazil. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, v. 119, n. 23, p. 13233-13249, . (13/05014-0, 09/15235-8)
SCHNEEBELI, MARC; GRAZIOLI, JACOPO; BERNE, ALEXIS. Improved Estimation of the Specific Differential Phase Shift Using a Compilation of Kalman Filter Ensembles. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, v. 52, n. 8, p. 5137-5149, . (09/15235-8)
SARAIVA, A. C. V.; CAMPOS, L. Z. S.; WILLIAMS, E. R.; ZEPKA, G. S.; ALVES, J.; PINTO, JR., O.; HECKMAN, S.; BUZATO, T. S.; BAILEY, J. C.; MORALES, C. A.; et al. High-speed video and electromagnetic analysis of two natural bipolar cloud-to-ground lightning flashes. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, v. 119, n. 10, p. 6105-6127, . (10/01742-2, 09/15235-8, 08/56711-4)
MARCELO MIACCI; CARLOS FREDERICO ANGELIS. Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer Calibration: an Overview. J. Aerosp. Technol. Manag., v. 10, . (09/15235-8, 11/03093-4)
BISCARO, THIAGO S.; MACHADO, LUIZ A. T.; GIANGRANDE, SCOTT E.; JENSEN, MICHAEL P.. What drives daily precipitation over the central Amazon? Differences observed between wet and dry seasons. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, v. 21, n. 9, p. 6735-6754, . (09/15235-8, 15/14497-0)
SHRIVASTAVA, MANISH; RASOOL, QUAZI Z.; ZHAO, BIN; OCTAVIANI, MEGA; ZAVERI, RAHUL A.; ZELENYUK, ALLA; GAUDET, BRIAN; LIU, YING; SHILLING, JOHN E.; SCHNEIDER, JOHANNES; et al. ight Coupling of Surface and In-Plant Biochemistry and Convection Governs Key Fine Particulate Components over the Amazon Rainfores. ACS EARTH AND SPACE CHEMISTRY, v. 6, n. 2, p. 380-390, . (13/05014-0, 09/15235-8)
MEI, FAN; WANG, JIAN; COMSTOCK, JENNIFER M.; WEIGEL, RALF; KRAEMER, MARTINA; MAHNKE, CHRISTOPH; SHILLING, JOHN E.; SCHNEIDER, JOHANNES; SCHULZ, CHRISTIANE; LONG, CHARLES N.; et al. Comparison of aircraft measurements during GoAmazon2014/5 and ACRIDICON-CHUVA. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, v. 13, n. 2, p. 661-684, . (17/04654-6, 13/05014-0, 09/15235-8)
WILLIAMS, EARLE R.; MATTOS, ENRIQUE V.; MACHADO, LUIZ A. T.. Stroke multiplicity and horizontal scale of negative charge regions in thunderclouds. Geophysical Research Letters, v. 43, n. 10, p. 5460-5466, . (13/04292-6, 09/15235-8, 11/13673-8)
CECCHINI, MICAEL A.; MACHADO, LUIZ A. T.; COMSTOCK, JENNIFER M.; MEI, FAN; WANG, JIAN; FAN, JIWEN; TOMLINSON, JASON M.; SCHMID, BEAT; ALBRECHT, RACHEL; MARTIN, SCOT T.; et al. Impacts of the Manaus pollution plume on the microphysical properties of Amazonian warm-phase clouds in the wet season. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, v. 16, n. 11, p. 7029-7041, . (14/08615-7, 09/15235-8)
CECCHINI, MICAEL A.; MACHADO, LUIZ A. T.; ARTAXO, PAULO. Droplet Size Distributions as a function of rainy system type and Cloud Condensation Nuclei concentrations. ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH, v. 143, p. 301-312, . (09/15235-8)
NEGRI, RENATO G.; MACHADO, LUIZ A. T.; ENGLISH, STEPHEN; FORSYTHE, MARY. Combining a Cloud-Resolving Model with Satellite for Cloud Process Model Simulation Validation. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, v. 53, n. 2, p. 521-533, . (09/15235-8)
ZILLI, MARCIA T.; CARVALHO, LEILA M. V.; LIEBMANN, BRANT; SILVA DIAS, MARIA A.. A comprehensive analysis of trends in extreme precipitation over southeastern coast of Brazil. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLIMATOLOGY, v. 37, n. 5, p. 2269-2279, . (09/15235-8)
GAONA, MANUEL F. RIOS; OVEREEM, AART; RAUPACH, TIMOTHY H.; LEIJNSE, HIDDE; UIJLENHOET, REMKO. Rainfall retrieval with commercial microwave links in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, v. 11, n. 7, p. 4465-4476, . (09/15235-8)
MIACCI, MARCELO; ANGELIS, CARLOS FREDERICO. Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer Calibration: an Overview. JOURNAL OF AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT, v. 10, . (09/15235-8, 11/03093-4)
MACHADO, LUIZ A. T.; CALHEIROS, ALAN J. P.; BISCARO, THIAGO; GIANGRANDE, SCOTT; SILVA DIAS, MARIA A. F.; CECCHINI, MICAEL A.; ALBRECHT, RACHEL; ANDREAE, MEINRAT O.; ARAUJO, WAGNER F.; ARTAXO, PAULO; et al. Overview: Precipitation characteristics and sensitivities to environmental conditions during GoAmazon2014/5 and ACRIDICON-CHUVA. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, v. 18, n. 9, p. 6461-6482, . (15/14497-0, 14/08615-7, 09/15235-8)
GIANGRANDE, SCOTT E.; FENG, ZHE; JENSEN, MICHAEL P.; COMSTOCK, JENNIFER M.; JOHNSON, KAREN L.; TOTO, TAMI; WANG, MENG; BURLEYSON, CASEY; BHARADWAJ, NITIN; MEI, FAN; et al. Cloud characteristics, thermodynamic controls and radiative impacts during the Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) experiment. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, v. 17, n. 23, p. 14519-14541, . (09/15235-8)
GIANGRANDE, SCOTT E.; TOTO, TAMI; JENSEN, MICHAEL P.; BARTHOLOMEW, MARY JANE; FENG, ZHE; PROTAT, ALAIN; WILLIAMS, CHRISTOPHER R.; SCHUMACHER, COURTNEY; MACHADO, LUIZ. Convective cloud vertical velocity and mass-flux characteristics from radar wind profiler observations during GoAmazon2014/5. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, v. 121, n. 21, p. 12891-12913, . (09/15235-8)
MEDINA, BRUNO LISBOA; MACHADO, LUIZ A. T.. Dual polarization radar Lagrangian parameters: a statistics-based probabilistic nowcasting model. NATURAL HAZARDS, v. 89, n. 2, p. 705-721, . (09/15235-8, 15/14497-0)
GOUVEIA, DIEGO A.; BARJA, BORIS; BARBOSA, HENRIQUE M. J.; SEIFERT, PATRIC; BAARS, HOLGER; PAULIQUEVIS, THEOTONIO; ARTAXO, PAULO. Optical and geometrical properties of cirrus clouds in Amazonia derived from 1 year of ground-based lidar measurements. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, v. 17, n. 5, p. 3619-3636, . (12/16100-1, 09/15235-8, 13/50510-5, 13/05014-0)
FAN, JIWEN; ROSENFELD, DANIEL; ZHANG, YUWEI; GIANGRANDE, SCOTT E.; LI, ZHANQING; MACHADO, LUIZ A. T.; MARTIN, SCOT T.; YANG, YAN; WANG, JIAN; ARTAXO, PAULO; et al. Substantial convection and precipitation enhancements by ultrafine aerosol particles. Science, v. 359, n. 6374, p. 411+, . (13/05014-0, 09/15235-8, 13/50510-5)
JAEKEL, EVELYN; WENDISCH, MANFRED; KRISNA, TRISMONO C.; EWALD, FLORIAN; KOELLING, TOBIAS; JURKAT, TINA; VOIGT, CHRISTIANE; CECCHINI, MICAEL A.; MACHADO, LUIZ A. T.; AFCHINE, ARMIN; et al. Vertical distribution of the particle phase in tropical deep convective clouds as derived from cloud-side reflected solar radiation measurements. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, v. 17, n. 14, p. 9049-9066, . (13/05014-0, 09/15235-8)
NEGRI, R. G.; MACHADO, L. A. T.; BORDE, R.. Inner convective system cloud-top wind estimation using multichannel infrared satellite images. International Journal of Remote Sensing, v. 35, n. 2, p. 651-670, . (09/15235-8)
SAPUCCI, LUIZ F.. Evaluation of Modeling Water-Vapor-Weighted Mean Tropospheric Temperature for GNSS-Integrated Water Vapor Estimates in Brazil. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, v. 53, n. 3, p. 715-730, . (06/04008-2, 09/15235-8)
LUCIANA BASSI MARINHO PIRES; KAY SUSELJ; LUCIANA ROSSATO; JOÃO TEIXEIRA. Análise da Convecção Rasa sobre a Região Costeira Amazônica Usando Imagens de Satélite, Dados Observacionais e Modelagem. Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia, v. 33, n. 2, p. 366-379, . (09/15235-8)
CECCHINI, MICAEL A.; MACHADO, LUIZ A. T.; WENDISCH, MANFRED; COSTA, ANJA; KRAEMER, MARTINA; ANDREAE, MEINRAT O.; AFCHINE, ARMIN; ALBRECHT, RACHEL I.; ARTAXO, PAULO; BORRMANN, STEPHAN; et al. Illustration of microphysical processes in Amazonian deep convective clouds in the gamma phase space: introduction and potential applications. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, v. 17, n. 23, p. 14727-14746, . (15/14497-0, 14/08615-7, 09/15235-8, 14/21189-7)
DA SILVA RAMOS, DIOGO NUNES; REYES FERNANDEZ, JULIO PABLO; FISCH, GILBERTO. Evolution of the Planetary Boundary Layer on the northern coast of Brazil during the CHUVA campaign. ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH, v. 203, p. 298-310, . (09/15235-8)
ZINNER, TOBIAS; SCHWARZ, ULRICH; KOELLING, TOBIAS; EWALD, FLORIAN; JAEKEL, EVELYN; MAYER, BERNHARD; WENDISCH, MANFRED. Cloud geometry from oxygen-A-band observations through an aircraft side window. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, v. 12, n. 2, p. 1167-1181, . (13/05014-0, 09/15235-8)
SAPUCCI, LUIZ F.; MACHADO, LUIZ A. T.; DE SOUZA, ENIUCE MENEZES; CAMPOS, THAMIRIS B.. Global Positioning System precipitable water vapour (GPS-PWV) jumps before intense rain events: A potential application to nowcasting. METEOROLOGICAL APPLICATIONS, v. 26, n. 1, p. 49-63, . (15/14497-0, 09/15235-8)
OLIVEIRA, ROMULO; MAGGIONI, VIVIANA; VILA, DANIEL; PORCACCHIA, LEONARDO. Using Satellite Error Modeling to Improve GPM-Level 3 Rainfall Estimates over the Central Amazon Region. REMOTE SENSING, v. 10, n. 2, . (09/15235-8)
DELAHAYE, FLORIAN; KIRSTETTER, PIERRE-EMMANUEL; DUBREUIL, VINCENT; MACHADO, LUIZ A. T.; VILA, DANIEL A.; CLARK, III, ROBERT. A consistent gauge database for daily rainfall analysis over the Legal Brazilian Amazon. Journal of Hydrology, v. 527, p. 292-304, . (09/15235-8)
SCHNEEBELI, M.; SAKURAGI, J.; BISCARO, T.; ANGELIS, C. F.; CARVALHO DA COSTA, I.; MORALES, C.; BALDINI, L.; MACHADO, L. A. T.. Polarimetric X-band weather radar measurements in the tropics: radome and rain attenuation correction. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, v. 5, n. 9, p. 2183-2199, . (09/15235-8)
BATTAGLIA, ALESSANDRO; SAAVEDRA, PABLO; MORALES, CARLOS AUGUSTO; SIMMER, CLEMENS. Understanding three-dimensional effects in polarized observations with the ground-based ADMIRARI radiometer during the CHUVA campaign. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, v. 116, . (09/15235-8)
ADAMS, DAVID K.; FERNANDES, RUI M. S.; KURSINSKI, E. ROBERT; MAIA, JAIR M.; SAPUCCI, LUIZ F.; MACHADO, LUIZ A. T.; VITORELLO, ICARO; GALERA MONICO, JOAO FRANCISCO; HOLUB, KIRK L.; GUTMAN, SETH I.; et al. A dense GNSS meteorological network for observing deep convection in the Amazon. Atmospheric Science Letters, v. 12, n. 2, p. 207-212, . (09/15235-8)
OLIVEIRA, ROMULO; MAGGIONI, VIVIANA; VILA, DANIEL; MORALES, CARLOS. Characteristics and Diurnal Cycle of GPM Rainfall Estimates over the Central Amazon Region. REMOTE SENSING, v. 8, n. 7, . (09/15235-8)
MATTOS, ENRIQUE V.; MACHADO, LUIZ A. T.; WILLIAMS, EARLE R.; ALBRECHT, RACHEL I.. Polarimetric radar characteristics of storms with and without lightning activity. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, v. 121, n. 23, p. 14201-14220, . (09/15235-8, 11/18217-0)
OLIVEIRA, ROMULO A. J.; BRAGA, RAMON C.; VILA, DANIEL A.; MORALES, CARLOS A.. Evaluation of GPROF-SSMI/S rainfall estimates over land during the Brazilian CHUVA-VALE campaign. ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH, v. 163, n. SI, p. 102-116, . (09/15235-8)

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