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GoAmazon: interactions of the urban plume of Manaus with biogenic forest emissions in Amazonia

Grant number: 13/05014-0
Support type:Research Program on Global Climate Change - Thematic Grants
Duration: November 01, 2013 - January 31, 2018
Field of knowledge:Physical Sciences and Mathematics - Geosciences
Principal Investigator:Paulo Eduardo Artaxo Netto
Grantee:Paulo Eduardo Artaxo Netto
Home Institution: Instituto de Física (IF). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). São Paulo, SP, Brazil
Co-Principal Investigators:Maria Assunção Faus da Silva Dias
Assoc. researchers:Edmilson Dias de Freitas ; Gilberto Fernando Fisch ; Henrique de Melo Jorge Barbosa ; Julio Tota da Silva ; Luciana Varanda Rizzo ; Rita Valéria Andreoli de Souza ; Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira de Souza ; Rosa Maria Nascimento dos Santos ; Scot Turnbull Martin ; Theotonio Mendes Pauliquevis Júnior
Associated grant(s):14/50297-2 - Combined Aerosol Mass Spectrometry in the Amazon, AP.R
Associated scholarship(s):17/22170-6 - Characterization of background noise and pointing direction of a sky-imager, BP.IC
16/18866-2 - Detailed observation of the microphysics of aerosols and clouds using the new HARP-CubeSat satellite, the grasp algorithm and in-situ measurements in Amazonia, BE.PQ
16/24312-0 - Vertical distribution of clouds in Central Amazon from the measurements of a ceilometer, BP.IC
+ associated scholarships 16/12342-1 - Observations of cloud lifecycle changes in Amazonia and their impacts on radiative budget, BP.PD
16/18515-5 - Diurnal cycle of cloud cover in São Paulo derived from measurements of a low-cost skyimager, BP.IC
16/12731-8 - Effects of urban pollution on the composition of gases and particles in a tropical forest, BP.PD
15/00787-6 - Effects of anthropogenic pollution on warm clouds in the Amazon: a modelling study, BP.MS
14/05238-8 - Physical-chemical properties of biogenic secondary organic aerosols in the Amazon Forest, BP.PD
13/25058-1 - Impact of Manaus urban pollution on gases and particulate matter composition in the Amazon forest, BP.PD
13/24734-3 - The impact of urban emissions of Manaus and biogenic emissions from the Amazon Forest on the composition and concentrations of volatile organic compounds and its atmospheric reactivity, BP.DR - associated scholarships

Abstract

The GoAmazon experiment seeks to understand how aerosol and cloud life cycles are influenced by pollutant outflow from Manaus in the tropical rain forest. Particularly, the susceptibility to cloud-aerosol-precipitation interactions and the feedbacks among biosphere and atmosphere functioning and human activities. The scientific objectives are organized as Aerosol Life Cycle (ALC), Cloud Life Cycle (CLC), and Cloud-Aerosol-Radiation-Precipitation Interactions (CAPI). One of the focus is to understand the production of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from the interaction of urban pollution emissions with VOCs emitted from the forest. Manaus is a 2 million people urban area surrounded by hundreds of kilometers of forest, and the study of atmospheric processes in this interaction is important to regional and global climate change assessments. A set of detailed aerosol, trace gases and cloud measurements will be performed over 6 different sites, followed by detailed meteorological transport studies. Atmospheric properties measurements will take place before the Manaus plume on three sites (ATTO (site T0), ZF2 (site T01) and EMBRAPA (site T02)), 2 sites will be located downwind of the Manaus plume (Iranduba (site T2), close to the Negro River and Manacapuru (site T3)) and one site will be operated downtown Manaus. This FAPESP proposal involves the installation and operation of all 3 upwind sites (ATTO, ZF2 and EMBRAPA) and Iranduba. The data analysis and modeling, nevertheless will make use of all GoAmazon sites and data. In Manacapuru, US DoE will operate the ARM Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS-A and C) and the ARM Mobile Facility #1 (AMF1). In the sites operated by this proposal, a large set of measurements will be performed: aerosol optical measurements with spectral light scattering and absorption, aerosol size distribution, aerosol composition for organic and inorganic components, CCN (Cloud Condensation Nuclei), aerosol optical depth, radiation balance, atmospheric vertical thermodynamic structure among other measurements. Four aerosol mass spectrometers will be deployed to measure organic and inorganic aerosol composition with 30 minutes time resolution in several locations. Raman Lidar will measure the vertical distribution of aerosols and water vapor up to 12 Km. Trace gases such as O3, CO, CO2, CH4, SO2 and detailed VOCs characterization will also be determined. Measurements of cloud properties including cloud cover fraction, droplet size distribution, precipitation, water vapor and others will be combined with cloud and precipitation radars for a regional assessment of the complex cloud-aerosol- precipitation relationship. Boundary layer thermodynamic properties will be measured with frequent radiosondes in several sites. High resolution BRAMS regional modeling will be performed daily with 2 km resolution and full aerosol and trace gas chemistry. High resolution cloud modeling will integrate aerosol, CCN, water vapor and thermodynamic conditions for a variety of thermodynamic conditions. The GoAmazon measurements and modeling framework will provide a dataset vital to constrain tropical forest model parameterizations for organic aerosols, cloud and convection schemes, and radiation balance. The dataset also will provide insights into how these are perturbed by pollution and how they influence climate regionally and globally. (AU)

Articles published in Agência FAPESP about the research grant
Deforestation may intensify global warming even more than previously predicted 
Ultrafine aerosol particles intensify rainfall in Amazon region 
Diversity of climate research 
Study reinforces the Amazon forest's importance in regulating atmospheric chemistry 
Study reveals how particles that seed clouds in the Amazon are produced 
Pollution over Amazon Rainforest inhibits photosynthesis and reduces cloud formation 
Reduction in Amazon deforestation avoids 1,700 deaths per year 
Study investigates delayed onset of rainy season in the Amazon 
Task force investigates whether Amazonia’s ‘Green Ocean’ is at risk 
A region in the state of Amazonas serves as a model laboratory for researchers 
Articles published in Revista Pesquisa FAPESP about the project
An ocean in the skies