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Systematic of hydnoid and corticioid fungi (Polyporales) from Brazilian Atlantic Forest

Grant number: 18/20000-9
Support type:Research Grants - Visiting Researcher Grant - International
Duration: February 11, 2019 - February 23, 2019
Field of knowledge:Biological Sciences - Botany
Principal Investigator:Adriana de Mello Gugliotta
Grantee:Adriana de Mello Gugliotta
Visiting researcher: Mario Rajchenberg
Visiting researcher institution: Centro de Investigación y Extensión Forestal Andino Patagónico (CIEFAP), Argentina
Home Institution: Instituto de Botânica. Secretaria do Meio Ambiente (São Paulo - Estado). São Paulo , SP, Brazil

Abstract

The Fungi kingdom is known to have a high diversity of organisms and, from its ancestor to the most derived forms, includes the largest lineage among the eukaryotes. However, it is estimated that only about 5% of that diversity is known, and new species are published annually for all regions of the world. Approximately 16,000 new species were registered in the Index of Fungi between 1981 and 1990, and about 60 to 85% of these are from tropical regions. As a result, the taxonomic identity and phylogenetic placement of many neotropical species are poorly understood. The class Agaricomycetes Doweld comprises the largest part of the macroscopic fungi, including several orders, with Polyporales Gäum being one of the most diverse. The order Polyporales includes poroid (hymenophore formed tubes), hydnoid (hymenophore formed by teeth) and corticioid (smooth hymenophore) species, as well as other intermediate forms. In spite of the advances in the taxonomy of the poroid species in Polyporales and a significant increase of the studies in the neotropical areas in the last century, mainly in Brazil, very few studies have focused on the hydnoid and corticioid species and, therefore, their diversity is poorly known, especially in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, one of the most biologically rich and threatened regions of the planet. For these reasons, the present project is proposed, which integrates the studies currently carried out in the Basidiomycota Laboratory, at the Research Center in Mycology of the Institute of Botany (NPM/IBt), through projects funded by FAPESP and CAPES. The visit and participation of the expert researcher Dr. Mario Rajchenberg (CIEFAP, Argentina) would be of great importance in the aid of the identification of hydnoid and corticioid species collected in the south and southeast Brazilian Atlantic Forest, certification of the SP herbarium collections related to the projects and discussion of the taxonomic characteristics useful for the circumscription of genera and species. For this, specimens previously collected and to be collected in Conservation Units of the state of São Paulo during the visit of Dr. Rajchenberg will be studied. In addition to the morphological (macro and microscopic) analyses, cultures of the specimens collected and of others already available will be studied in order to provide more information for the characterization of the species, as well as to expand the Collection of Cultures of Algae, Cyanobacteria and Fungi (CCIBt ) of the Institute of Botany, with well characterized and qualified cultures. Dr. Rajchenberg will also assist in the interpretation of phylogenetic analyses, participate as an evaluator of a PhD thesis, and present a lecture on wood-decay fungi and forest pathologies in the Patagonia region. This way, this project will be unprecedented in the morphological and phylogenetic understanding of the hydnoid and corticioid fungi of the Phlebioid and Residual polyporoid clades in Brazil. Furthermore, the visit of Dr. Rajchenberg will also contribute to strengthen the cooperation arrangements among the institutions involved (Institute of Botany/Brazil and CIEFAP/Argentina) and will facilitate the preparation and finalization of manuscripts already in development, as well as future publications. (AU)

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