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Tourists and residents' responses to tourism promotional ads: an experimental study with eye-tracking device

Grant number: 19/05573-5
Support type:Research Grants - Visiting Researcher Grant - International
Duration: November 18, 2019 - November 24, 2019
Field of knowledge:Applied Social Sciences - Tourism
Cooperation agreement: CONFAP ; Newton Fund, with FAPESP as a partner institution in Brazil ; UK Academies
Principal Investigator:Janaina de Moura Engracia Giraldi
Grantee:Janaina de Moura Engracia Giraldi
Visiting researcher: Vishwaskumar Maheshwari
Visiting researcher institution: Staffordshire University, England
Home Institution: Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade de Ribeirão Preto (FEARP). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Ribeirão Preto , SP, Brazil

Abstract

In order to promote a place, national tourism organizations (NTO) develop tourism promotional advertisements (destination photographs, logos and slogans). Regarding the ads' photographs, some changes have happened due to the tourist easiest access to information. Potential tourists have great access not only to the destination's photographs provided by NTOs through official tourist websites but also to several photos shared by tourist previous experiences on internet. The online destination image can be formed by NTO-Generated content and by Tourist-Generated Content (TGC). Furthermore, the literature has indicated that tourism ads should: i) be more realistic, showing the real tourist experience at the place and ii) consider tourists' and residents' opinions to the destination brand identity elaboration. Considering this context, some questions are raised: should NTOs use Tourist-Generated photographs in the development of tourism promotional ads? Are the tourist's and resident's responses, such as visual attention and attitude better towards ads with TGC or NTO-Generated content? Regarding the literature on logo and slogans there is still no consensus about their contribution to tourists and residents' responses when they are used in tourism promotional ads. Some authors have questioned the current investments in creating and designing logos and slogans by marketing organizations and comment that they are overvalued. The literature has also indicated a need to move destination branding beyond the design of taglines and related promotional campaigns towards different directions that incorporate more real features of the place identity. However, should public organizations use or not the logos and slogans? Are tourists and residents' responses, such as visual attention and attitude better to the ads with or without logos and slogans? Considering the literature gaps pointed out, the present study aims to analyse the tourists and residents' responses to tourism promotional ads considering the different uses of photographs (NTO x TGC) and semiotic signs (with or without logo and slogans). The data collection happens in four different moments: - Tourist - Eye tracking data: 24 tourist promotional ads from Brazil is shown to 31 students from a UK University in order to analyse tourists' visual attention to them. - Tourist - Survey data: questionnaires are conducted regarding the same 24 tourist promotional ads in order to analyse the tourists' attitude toward them. - Residents - Eye tracking data: 24 tourist promotional ads from Brazil is shown to 31 students from the University São Paulo, in Brazil in order to analyse residents' visual attention to them.-Residents - Survey data: questionnaires are conducted regarding the same 24 tourist promotional ads in order to analyse the residents' attitude toward them. The proposed visit can contribute by offering destination branding and methodology lectures to members of this project and to other academics. The academic gains would be: i) improvement of project theoretical references; ii) futures articles development provided from the present research project. The project associated to this proposal and the academic community surrounding the host researcher will positively gain from the set of activities that will be delivered by the proposed visit. Infrastructure and funding are available for the research project, excluding the expenses requested in the proposal. The University of São Paulo seeks to support the international visitor and provide all the structure for performing the activities described above. (AU)