About 68% of the world's population will be living in the cities by 2050. Megacities such as São Paulo already suffer the exacerbated effects of climate change due to heat islands and impermeable surfaces, along with the harm caused by the environmental pollution. The conditions of the urban environment can be improved using the ecosystem services of trees that include carbon sequestration, water production, temperature reduction and air pollution, which vary according to species and their growth conditions. The ecosystem services of urban forests are part of the Nature-Based Solutions that are essential for the adaptation and mitigation of the urban environment to climate change and pollution. This project aims to establish a research group in Nature-Based Solutions with the vision of optimizing urban forests. The aims are to: I) quantify ecosystem services, II) understand the biological mechanisms, III) understand the impact of urban environment, IV) create the narratives. This study will be carried out at the Fontes do Ipiranga State Park as a remnant of the Atlantic Forest; and Ibirapuera Park as a public green area. Ecosystem services and related biological processes will be quantified concomitantly in both sites. Carbon, water and energy fluxes will be monitored at the population level using Eddy Covariance systems, and at individual level with both sap flow sensors and carbon allocation measures using tree rings in a dendrobiochemical approach. Tree rings will also be used to estimate the past variability in ecosystem services based on microdensity analyzes, hydraulic architecture and stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen. Removal of air pollution, on the other hand, will be determined for each species by means of biomonitoring techniques using tree bark. These data will be analyzed using complex networks that will allow integrating the biological processes from the individuals to the population. This project will support public management policies for the optimization the ecosystem services of urban forests. (AU)
Articles published in Pesquisa FAPESP Magazine about the research grant:
LOCOSSELLI, GIULIANO MASELLI;
BRIENEN, ROEL J. W.;
LEITE, MELINA DE SOUZA;
DE OLIVEIRA, ALEXANDRE A.;
Global tree-ring analysis reveals rapid decrease in tropical tree longevity with temperature.
PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,
DEC 29 2020.
Web of Science Citations: 5.
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