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Influence of melatonin supplementation associated to body mass management strategies (combined training and/or diet manipulation) on cardiac system of obese rats: study of alterations of cell death, redox state, inflammation, autophagy and metabolism


The alarming increase in prevalence of obesity has been considered a worldwide public health problem. The contemporary lifestyle has contributed to the growing number of obese individuals. Several studies have shown that there is a direct relationship between obesity and the development of several comorbidities, such as dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, certain types of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, being the latter the leading cause of death nowadays. In fact, the metabolic disorders observed in obesity, present multifactorial evidence that lead to the development of cardiac dysfunction. It is already well known that such disorders are related to an interrelationship between apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy, which can be all directly modulated by signaling pathways sensitive to oxidative stress. Thus, the use of compounds with antioxidant properties, such as melatonin, can be an easy and effective way for the treatment of the development and/or progression of different pathological conditions. In addition to the use of compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, the regular practice of physical exercises is also recognized as an important factor that can significantly contribute to weight control and composition, as well as regulate some factors associated with the development of obesity-related comorbidities, in particular cardiovascular diseases. There are numerous forms of physical exercise, however, currently, animal and human studies have observed additional benefits of combined training, which includes aerobic and strength activities. It is therefore evident the importance of projects that comprehensively evaluate the production, activation and integration of key proteins involved in the processes of apoptosis, necrosis and cellular autophagy, allowing us to better understand this process, allowing us to think about the development of new therapeutic opportunities which were not possible to be made in a recent past. (AU)

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