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Impact of the Southern Atlantic on the global overturning circulation (MOC) and climate (SAMOC)

Grant number: 11/50552-4
Support type:Research Program on Global Climate Change - Thematic Grants
Duration: December 01, 2011 - November 30, 2016
Field of knowledge:Physical Sciences and Mathematics - Oceanography
Cooperation agreement: FACEPE - ANR
Principal Investigator:Edmo José Dias Campos
Grantee:Edmo José Dias Campos
Principal investigator abroad: Sabrina Speich
Institution abroad: Université de Bretagne Occidentale (UBO), France
Home Institution: Instituto Oceanográfico (IO). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). São Paulo , SP, Brazil
Co-Principal Investigators:Ilana Elazari Klein Coaracy Wainer ; Ilson Carlos Almeida da SIlveira
Associated grant(s):14/50544-0 - Offshore oil platforms for ocean monitoring and testing (OOP-OMT), AP.R
Associated scholarship(s):14/02225-2 - Connections between Agulhas Leakage and the South America's climate - a study using a coupled ocean-atmosphere model, BP.DR
13/08572-3 - Oceanic inter-hemispheric exchanges: Tropic-Extratropic Conecctions in the South Atlantic - analyses of observations and numerical results, BP.PD
11/23931-4 - Variability of the Meridional Overturning Circulation and the heat and salt transport in the South Atlantic - analysis of data and numerical models output, BP.PD

Abstract

This project has different purposes within the international research devoted to climate variability and change. The most relevant one is to develop a monitoring array in the South Atlantic, within a broad international partnership, to continue a time series started in 2004, south of Africa, in 2008 in the Drake Passage, and on the eastern and western boundaries of the South Atlantic. The main goal is to enhance the ongoing effort within a broader coordinated experimental context, focusing at the determination of an optimal observing network to monitor the global overturning circulation in the South Atlantic. This international programmer has been named SAMOC (South Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation). SAMOC has been positively evaluated and endorsed by the Southern Ocean Clivar/CliC/SCAR and Clivar Atlantic Panels. It is supported, in the USA, by NOAA, and the NSF. It is already receiving support in France from Ifremer and CPER Region Bretagne. In Brazil, it is endorsed by the "Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia para Mudanças Climáticas" (INCT -MC). Observations and models indicate that variations in the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) are strongly correlated to important climate changes. To date, most MOC observations have been focused in the North Atlantic. However, model studies show that the South Atlantic is not just a passive conduit for water masses formed in other regions of the world ocean. For instance, the Agulhas leakage has a strong impact on the South Atlantic and, consequently, on the Brazilian coastal zones. Its influence also reaches the northern North Atlantic, affecting the global MOC. These results highlight the need for sustained observations in the South Atlantic, which, in conjunction with modeling efforts, would improve the understanding of the processes necessary to formulate long-term climate predictions. The CLIV AR calls for a MOC monitoring array across the South Atlantic. Three SAMOC workshops were held to bring together the international community to design a suitable integrated observational program. The hypothesis is that changes in the upper ocean return flow of the MOC in the South Atlantic could significantly impact the regional and global climate, and the properties of the North Atlantic Mac. The goals are: (1) to characterize the time-mean and time-varying components of the MOC, as well as, the heat and salt carried by the MOC, in the South Atlantic; (2) to observe the changes in the ventilation characteristics and relative contributions of different water masses to the MOC and (3) to contribute with regional studies in the assessment of the sensitivity of the South American climate conditions to the SAMOC variability and changes. The overall program is a collaborative effort involving investigators from France, Brazil, the U.S., South Africa, Argentina, Russia and Germany. France, Brazil, Germany and the U.S. will provide the major instrumentation for the moored array along 34.5°S and the GoogHope line, the backbone for the SAMOC field program. South Africa, Russia, Brazil, Germany and Argentina will contribute with funds for ship-time and local-expertise for the turn-around and recovery cruises. France and Brazil will lead the development of a common strategy in regional climate models apt to downscale climate variability and assess the ocean circulation influence on climate changes and their impact over South America and Africa. This proposal seeks funds from ANR for six new bottom Current Pressure Inverted Echo Sounder moorings (C-PIES), to refit seven (7) PIES, DATA-PODS to regularly transmit via satellite mooring data to land centers and to develop and strengthen the collaborative effort between Brazil and France. In Brazil, funds are requested from F APESP and F ACEPE mainly for ship-time for the turn-around and recovery cruises, ADCP, LADCP, bottom pressure gauge and C-PIES to be deployed in the western end of the array and travel support. Broader Impact: The influence of the MOC variability on global weather patterns, marine ecosystems, terrestrial vegetation, oceanic CO2 uptake, and other components of the climate system are of important societal relevance. The proposed program aims to improve our understanding of the MOC variability in the South Atlantic and its impact on the global and regional climate. Data will be made available to the research and operational community, particularly to the modeling community, to expand our skill in reproducing the observed MOC variability, diagnose the mechanisms that produce MOC variability, and predict the future evolution of the Mac. Participation of grad students and post-docs will advance the national education goals. (AU)

Articles published in Agência FAPESP Newsletter about the research grant
Huge impact of global warming on Southern Ocean 
Science is moving forward in unexplored parts of the oceans 
Changes adrift on the South Atlantic  
Extreme and connected climatic phenomena 
Scientists prepare to monitor Atlantic Ocean 
Articles published in Pesquisa FAPESP Magazine about the research grant:
Pioneering voyage 

Scientific publications (13)
(References retrieved automatically from Web of Science and SciELO through information on FAPESP grants and their corresponding numbers as mentioned in the publications by the authors)
VALLA, DANIEL; PIOLA, ALBERTO R.; MEINEN, CHRISTOPHER S.; CAMPOS, EDMO. Abyssal Transport Variations in the Southwest South Atlantic: First Insights From a Long-Term Observation Array at 34.5 degrees S. Geophysical Research Letters, v. 46, n. 12, p. 6699-6705, JUN 28 2019. Web of Science Citations: 0.
FRAJKA-WILLIAMS, ELEANOR; ANSORGE, ISABELLE J.; BAEHR, JOHANNA; BRYDEN, HARRY L.; CHIDICHIMO, MARIA PAZ; CUNNINGHAM, STUART A.; DANABASOGLU, GOKHAN; DONG, SHENFU; DONOHUE, KATHLEEN A.; ELIPOT, SHANE; HEIMBACH, PATRICK; HOLLIDAY, N. PENNY; HUMMELS, REBECCA; JACKSON, LAURA C.; KARSTENSEN, JOHANNES; LANKHORST, MATTHIAS; LE BRAS, ISABELA A.; LOZIER, M. SUSAN; MCDONAGH, ELAINE L.; MEINEN, CHRISTOPHER S.; MERCIER, HERLE; MOAT, I, BENGAMIN; PEREZ, RENELLYS C.; PIECUCH, CHRISTOPHER G.; RHEIN, MONIKA; SROKOSZ, MERIC A.; TRENBERTH, KEVIN E.; BACON, SHELDON; FORGET, GAEL; GONI, GUSTAVO; KIEKE, DAGMAR; KOELLING, JANNES; LAMONT, TARRON; MCCARTHY, GERARD D.; MERTENS, CHRISTIAN; SEND, UWE; SMEED, DAVID A.; SPEICH, SABRINA; VAN DEN BERG, MARCEL; VOLKOV, DENIS; WILSON, CHRIS. Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation: Observed Transport and Variability. FRONTIERS IN MARINE SCIENCE, v. 6, JUN 7 2019. Web of Science Citations: 6.
CASTELLANOS, PAOLA; OLMEDO, ESTRELLA; LLUIS PELEGRI, JOSEP; TURIEL, ANTONIO; CAMPOS, EDMO J. D. Seasonal Variability of Retroflection Structures and Transports in the Atlantic Ocean as Inferred from Satellite-Derived Salinity Maps. REMOTE SENSING, v. 11, n. 7 APR 1 2019. Web of Science Citations: 1.
VALLA, DANIEL; PIOLA, ALBERTO R.; MEINEN, CHRISTOPHER S.; CAMPOS, EDMO. Strong Mixing and Recirculation in the Northwestern Argentine Basin. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS, v. 123, n. 7, p. 4624-4648, JUL 2018. Web of Science Citations: 7.
MEINEN, CHRISTOPHER S.; SPEICH, SABRINA; PIOLA, ALBERTO R.; ANSORGE, ISABELLE; CAMPOS, EDMO; KERSALE, MARION; TERRE, THIERRY; CHIDICHIMO, MARIA PAZ; LAMONT, TARRON; SATO, OLGA T.; PEREZ, RENELLYS C.; VALLA, DANIEL; VAN DEN BERG, MARCEL; LE HENAFF, MATTHIEU; DONG, SHENFU; GARZOLI, SILVIA L. Meridional Overturning Circulation Transport Variability at 34.5 degrees S During 2009-2017: Baroclinic and Barotropic Flows and the Dueling Influence of the Boundaries. Geophysical Research Letters, v. 45, n. 9, p. 4180-4188, MAY 16 2018. Web of Science Citations: 12.
SANTIS, WLADEMIR; AIMOLA, LUIS; CAMPOS, EDMO J. D.; CASTELLANOS, PAOLA. The impacts of the atmospheric annular mode on the AMOC and its feedback in an idealized experiment. DYNAMICS OF ATMOSPHERES AND OCEANS, v. 81, p. 30-41, MAR 2018. Web of Science Citations: 1.
CASTELLANOS, P.; CAMPOS, E. J. D.; PIERA, J.; SATO, O. T.; SILVA DIAS, M. A. F. Impacts of Agulhas Leakage on the Tropical Atlantic Western Boundary Systems. Journal of Climate, v. 30, n. 17, p. 6645-6659, SEP 2017. Web of Science Citations: 5.
MEINEN, CHRISTOPHER S.; GARZOLI, SILVIA L.; PEREZ, RENELLYS C.; CAMPOS, EDMO; PIOLA, ALBERTO R.; PAZ CHIDICHIMO, MARIA; DONG, SHENFU; SATO, OLGA T. Characteristics and causes of Deep Western Boundary Current transport variability at 34.5 degrees S during 2009-2014. Ocean Science, v. 13, n. 1, p. 175-194, MAR 2 2017. Web of Science Citations: 11.
LOPEZ, HOSMAY; DONG, SHENFU; LEE, SANG-KI; CAMPOS, EDMO. Remote influence of Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation on the South Atlantic meridional overturning circulation variability. Geophysical Research Letters, v. 43, n. 15, p. 8250-8258, AUG 16 2016. Web of Science Citations: 11.
CASTELLANOS, P.; CAMPOS, E. J. D.; GIDDY, I.; SANTIS, W. Inter-comparison studies between high-resolution HYCOM simulation and observational data: The South Atlantic and the Agulhas leakage system. JOURNAL OF MARINE SYSTEMS, v. 159, p. 76-88, JUL 2016. Web of Science Citations: 5.
CASTELLANOS, PAOLA; PELEGRI, JOSEP L.; CAMPOS, EDMO J. D.; ROSELL-FIESCHI, MIQUEL; GASSER, MARC. Response of the surface tropical Atlantic Ocean to wind forcing. PROGRESS IN OCEANOGRAPHY, v. 134, p. 271-292, MAY 2015. Web of Science Citations: 2.
RODRIGUES, REGINA R.; CAMPOS, EDMO J. D.; HAARSMA, REINDERT. The Impact of ENSO on the South Atlantic Subtropical Dipole Mode. Journal of Climate, v. 28, n. 7, p. 2691-2705, APR 2015. Web of Science Citations: 17.
MEINEN, CHRISTOPHER S.; SPEICH, SABRINA; PEREZ, RENELLYS C.; DONG, SHENFU; PIOLA, ALBERTO R.; GARZOLI, SILVIA L.; BARINGER, MOLLY O.; GLADYSHEV, SERGEY; CAMPOS, EDMO J. D. Temporal variability of the meridional overturning circulation at 34.5 degrees S: Results from two pilot boundary arrays in the South Atlantic. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS, v. 118, n. 12, p. 6461-6478, DEC 2013. Web of Science Citations: 30.

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