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Photobiomodulation protects and promotes differentiation of C2C12 myoblast cells exposed to snake venom

Grant number: 16/05863-5
Support type:Regular Research Grants - Publications - Scientific article
Duration: May 01, 2016 - October 31, 2016
Field of knowledge:Biological Sciences - Pharmacology - Biochemical and Molecular Pharmacology
Principal Investigator:Stella Regina Zamuner
Grantee:Stella Regina Zamuner
Home Institution: Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE). Campus Vergueiro. São Paulo , SP, Brazil

Abstract

Background: Snakebites is a neglected disease and in Brazil is considered a serious health problem, with the majority of the snakebites caused by the genus Bothrops. Antivenom therapy and other first-aid treatments do not reverse local myonecrose which is the main sequel caused by this envenomation. Several studies have shown the effectiveness of low level laser (LLL) therapy in reducing local myonecrosis induced by Bothropic venoms, however the mechanism involved in this effect is unknown. In this in vitro study, we aimed to analyze the effect of LLL irradiation against cytotoxicity induced by Bothrops jararacussu venom on myoblast C2C12 cells. Methodology: C2C12 were utilized as a model target and were incubated with B. jararacussu venom (12.5 µg/mL) and immediately irradiated with LLL at wavelength of red 685 nm or infrared 830 nm with energy density of 2.0, 4.6 and 7.0 J/cm2. Effectsof LLL on cellular responses of venom-induced cytotoxicity were examined, including cell viability, measurement of cell damage and intra and extracellular ATP levels, expression of myogenic regulatory factors, as well as cellular differentiation. Results: In non-irradiated cells, the venom caused a decrease in cell viability and a massive release of LDH and CK levels indicating myonecrosis. Infrared and red laser at all energy densities were able to considerably decrease venom-induced cytotoxicity. Laser irradiation induced myoblasts to differentiate into myotubes and this effect was accompanied by up regulation of MyoD and specially myogenin. Moreover, LLL was able to reduce the extracellular while increased the intracellular ATP content after venom exposure. In addition, no difference in the intensity of cytotoxicity was shown by non-irradiated and irradiated venom. Conclusion: LLL irradiation caused a protective effect on C2C12 cells against the cytotoxicity caused by B. jararacussu venom and promotes differentiation of these cells by up regulation of myogenic factors. A modulatory effect of ATP synthesis may be is a suggested as a possible mechanism mediating cytoprotection observed under laser irradiation. (AU)