|Support type:||Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate|
|Effective date (Start):||October 01, 2011|
|Effective date (End):||January 31, 2015|
|Field of knowledge:||Biological Sciences - Genetics - Molecular Genetics and Genetics of Microorganisms|
|Principal Investigator:||Eliana Gertrudes de Macedo Lemos|
|Grantee:||Thaís Carvalho Maester Casanova|
|Home Institution:||Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias (FCAV). Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP). Campus de Jaboticabal. Jaboticabal , SP, Brazil|
The versatility of enzymes allows their use in various applications, including catalysis processes of natural polymers such as starch, cellulose and proteins, as well as for regioselective or enantioselective synthesis of chemical asymmetric. In the future, new biotechnological applications are expected to promote the market of industrial enzymes. Thus, the replacement of chemical catalysts in industrial processes by enzymes causes a reduction of time and energy and industrial wastes that can compromise the environment, and therefore reversal in economic benefits. In this context, lipolytic enzymes have show enormous biotechnological potential, such as in enzyme mixtures for the production of detergents, the processing of leather, the production of cosmetics and other pharmaceuticals, perfumes and biodiesel. Most lipolytic enzymes are derived from microbes, presents low toxicity, are easily biodegraded and are notably quimical selective. In the view of microbial diversity studies, most of microorganisms that makes up the biosphere has not been studied yet. Through amplification, cloning and analysis of microbial DNA it can be evaluated in more detail physiology and function of microorganisms in nature. The full genomes of microbes found in a community are called metagenomics. In order to access the genetic resources of microbial species, the metagenomics has become an approach that offers the possibility of finding new genes coding for relevant products such as lipases and esterases. In a previous work (Master's project - process number 2009/03772-9) it was prospected genes encoding lipolytic enzymes in a metagenomic fosmidial library of a microbial consortium that degrades petroleum hydrocarbons obtained from soil contaminated with waste lubricant. Through the analysis of open reading frames (ORFs) were identified coding regions of lipolytic enzymes that have low similarity with known sequences, and the preliminary characterization of these enzymes revealed high biotechnological potential. Thus, this project has the intent to express in large scale, characterize biochemically and crystallize lipolytic enzymes encoded by the selected ORFs.