In Barretos Cancer Hospital hundreds of patients are diagnosed annually with prostate cancer and they are subdivided in two treatment groups after diagnosis: those submitted to radical prostatectomy and those that are referred for radiotherapy with curative intent. This, alone or in combination with surgery and chemotherapy, is an important method of cancer treatment, but adverse reactions developed in co-irradiated normal tissue can be harmful to the patient. Genetic markers can assist in the identification of high sensitivity, for example, are important to avoid adverse side effects and lead to a better clinical course. Recently, gene fusions between TMPRSS2 (transmembrane serine protease-type II) and the genes encoding factors ETS (erythroblastosis virus E26 transforming sequence; ERG, ETV1, and ETV4 ETV5) were discovered in prostate cancer. The most common fusion, the TMPRSS2: ERG is present in approximately 50% of prostate tumors and results in overexpression ERG protein. Current studies associate these events with biochemical recurrence of PSA after treatment, aggressive tumor stage and metastasis. However, there are few data correlating the presence of the gene fusion with the response to radiotherapy. These elements emerge as potential specific genetic biomarkers that can be used for early detection, diagnosis and response to therapy in prostate cancer. Based on this information the purpose of this study is to assess the presence of overexpression of TMPRSS2 and ERG proteins and TMPRSS2: ERG gene fusion in a group of patients with prostate cancer submitted to radiotherapy and a group undergoing radical prostatectomy and to correlate these specific events with the individual response to treatment.
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