The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age and affects 15 to 20% of women with infertility. The SOP has reproductive, endocrine, dermatological, gynecological, cardiac and psychological implications with symptoms ranging from infertility due to ovulatory dysfunction, menstrual disorders or androgenic symptoms. In addition, obesity affects the majority of women with PCOS and for this reason several studies have been done to link obesity and infertility in PCOS patients. Weight loss can improve levels of androgen and glucose, as well as ovulation and pregnancy rates. It is already known that the energy balance in rats is regulated by the ob gene that expresses the leptin. This protein of 146 amino acids and 16 kiloDaltons is known as the "satiety hormone" because it can function as part of a signaling pathway from adipose tissue regulating the size of body fat depot. Besides this function, leptin also plays a role in reproduction including a direct effect on the ovary. With advances in molecular biology techniques a new form of treatment arises, gene therapy, which involves transferring a gene to cells via a plasmid or viral vector. Therefore, it is essential and interesting to see the potential of gene therapy using the gene for leptin in mice with PCOS (ob/ob mice). For this, will be constructed adenoviral vector for overexpression of the leptin gene from a plasmid vector, and then will assess the effect of induction of leptin gene expression by transfection using adenovirus vector in cultured mesenchymal cells from adipose tissue of ob/ob mice.
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