Obesity is considered one of the most serious public health problems of modern society, and the positive energy balance due to increased energy intake and reduced physical activity contributes significantly to the epidemic of obesity. However, this disease is complex and involves genetic, behavioral and environmental factors. Studies show genetic influence on body mass between 30 and 70% and identified 127 possible genes associated with obesity. Research aimed to find interactions between genes and environment allowed the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that may influence individuals' responses to food. Considering the low efficacy of clinical treatment for grade III obese patients, the number of bariatric surgeries performed has greatly increased in recent decades. The surgery promotes weight loss and significant improvement / resolution of comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and hypertension. However, maintenance of weight lost is difficult to reach, and many patients have regained weight in the late postoperative period. However, regardless of the strategy used in the control / treatment of obesity, the individual response to interventions is highly variable. Some studies suggest that genetic variation among individuals may explain the variety of physiological responses existing in the same environment, explaining why some individuals are more likely to win / lose weight than others in the same environmental conditions. There are few studies evaluating the role of bariatric surgery as a treatment for obesity and its association with the different genes involved in obesity. However, these studies may elucidate the mechanisms associated with weight loss, for maintaining weight loss and the most appropriate treatment for different individuals.
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