Ethanol has attracted increasing attention and investiment from researchers, businesses and governments. This stems from the pressures on fuel prices and prospects of depletion of nonrenewable fossil fuels; as well as environmental concerns related to emissions of substances that pollute the environment. In this context, a new opportunity stands out in the country - the use of lignocellulosic biomass from agricultural residues, especially of the sugarcane industry for cellulosic ethanol production, within the context of biorefineries. Currently, the conversion by sucrochemistry route of lignocellulosic material, present in the straw and bagasse from sugar cane, into fermentable sugars for the production of bioethanol has been considered in Brazil as a promising alternative to meet world demand. But there are still steps involved in the process that need to be improved, as the best form of preparation of the waste (pretreatment) and national production of enzymes for application in process. Accordingly, and because of the wide biodiversity found, would be of great economic and environmental interest, the production of enzymes such as cellulases and xylanases. These enzymes responsible for the degradation of the biomass can be produced by a variety of microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria. The objective of this project fits in studies related to the use of agro-industrial waste: straw and bagasse from sugar cane, evaluating sequential proposals of extraction of the lignocellulosic fractions by different pretreatment, and develop an efficient way of producing specific cellulases and xylanases by filamentous fungi in bioreactors (stirred tank reactor and airlift), in order to obtain an economically viable process, favorable environmental, and with economic ideas.
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