According to Michel Foucault, the Man emerges in the Western thought solely towards the end of the XVIII century. This "new figure" appears as the subject of knowledge and, at the same time, a possible object of knowledge. Playing this double role, the man constitutes the historical a priori on which the modern philosophical thought develops itself. Taking this into account, the main concern of this research is to understand the critical diagnosis of the philosophical Modernity carried out by Foucault through the archaeology of knowledge. To that purpose, two books by Foucault, Les motes et les choses (1966) and Introduction à l'Anthropologie de Kant (1961) are to be confronted, what is justified by the fact that both texts illuminate the main themes around which Foucault articulates his critique on the modern philosophical thought. It shows that this thought, under the form of an "analytic of finitude", has fallen into an "anthropological sleep", by trying to turn the man into the fundament of his own limitations. Therewith the modern philosophical thought turned out to be a spread of pre-critical dogmatism. Furthermore, the book of 1961, in which Foucault closely analyses Kant's philosophy, seems to explain the ambiguous position of the German philosopher in Les mots et les choses.
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