The world's largest producer of cane sugar is Brazil, with its main derivatives alcohol and sugar, which mainly supply the fuel markets and food industries. Crop areas, constantly expanding, covering distinct variations in temperature and rainfall, there is also differences in the cropping systems, management of the amount of straw in the field and crop rotation with legumes. For this, among other factors, the role of the microbial community present in the soil can have fundamental importance, aiding in better plant development. However, little is known about the microbial community in soils cultivated with cane sugar, or even on their differentiation over time driving culture. Therefore a study biogeographical can benefit aimed at understanding this spatial-temporal distribution of microorganisms in soil. Furthermore, this approach will allow a better understanding of the hierarchy of environmental variables, such as physical and chemical soil properties climate, agricultural practices, and vegetation cover, fundamental for a comprehensive view of microbial ecology and its functionality in the ecosystem. Therefore, this proposal aims to identify and map the diversity of bacteria and fungi in soil cultivation of cane sugar, evaluating the influence over time, factors of climate, crop rotation, tillage systems and straw quantity . It is proposed to quantify these communities by applying real time PCR (qPCR) analysis of the microbial community structure by length polymorphism terminal restriction fragments (T-RFLP), and the determination of the phylogeny of the organisms analyzed by Ion Torrent ® gene targets. The sites will be sampled areas in experimental plants Iracema, Boa Vista (both the São Martinho Group), Quatá (Group Zilor), and Porto das Aguas (Cerradinho Group), located in the municipalities of Iracemápolis, Quirinopolis, Quatá and Plain of Heaven, respectively . The variables considered are, first, the difference between the local climate. Then be evaluated rotational practices with Crotalaria spectabilis before planting sugarcane, the management system (conventional tillage and no tillage with low traffic), and the amount of straw in the field. The monitoring of the areas will be held in two semesters of the first year and the second half of the second, and therefore the duration of two years. Therefore, this project will allow the realization of a temporal mapping of the microbial community in soils cultivated with cane sugar. In addition, relationships can be established between the variations of these communities on the basis of different management practices adopted, which will help in choosing more sustainable and profitable for sugarcane cultivation.
News published in Agência FAPESP Newsletter about the scholarship: