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Evaluation of the transfer of the residual nitrogen in intercropping tomato with green manures Fabaceae in the non tillage on corn straw (year II)

Grant number: 14/22602-5
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Scientific Initiation
Effective date (Start): December 01, 2014
Effective date (End): July 31, 2015
Field of knowledge:Agronomical Sciences - Agronomy - Crop Science
Principal Investigator:Edmilson Jose Ambrosano
Grantee:Gabriela Cristina Salgado
Home Institution: Departamento de Descentralização do Desenvolvimento (APTA Regional). Secretaria de Agricultura e Abastecimento (São Paulo - Estado). Campinas , SP, Brazil

Abstract

This is the continuation of the process in 2011 / 05648-3 "Transfer of nitrogen in intercropping tomato cultivation with (Fabaceae) green manures in law tillage on corn straw", which was planned to study the first cycle of tomato transplanted straight over the chaff from the corn produced in the previous year. The purpose of this grant application is to study the second year of conducting the experiment at the same location. With the practice of green manuring, it is possible incorporation into the soil nutrient nitrogen (N), performed by biological fixation. The vegetation cover is the essence of Zero Tillage System (SPD) as it has effect in the interception of raindrops, slows runoff runoff, improves or maintains the infiltration of water, protect the soil from solar radiation, favors the development of microorganisms and helps control weeds. In studies of the various processes of nutrient dynamics and soil organic matter, based on the use of isotope methods are of great importance and lead to results that contribute significantly to the increase in global food production. The major elements of interest in studies of the dynamics of organic matter are carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), and exhibit at least one isotope that can be used as a tracer for the study of the elements in the plant-soil system. The use or recovery of the N utilization by plants may be successfully determined by isotopic method, by measuring the abundance see 15N. The technique of varying the natural abundance of 13 C is successfully used in determining the rates of decomposition only when there is a variation of vegetation cover of C3 plants (green manure) to C4 (corn) and C4 (Corn) to C3 (green manures ), which occurs in this project, which is a fairly simple method to be employed. In the selection of tomato cultivars process, the tomato has good productivity, with an option for farmers who want to produce with low input. In this context, this project has the overall objective to analyze the transfer of nitrogen in an interim agroecological farming system cherry tomatoes with green manures in Fabaceae tillage on corn stover, harvested green, and evaluate the degradation rate of straw resulting from this system. Thus, the corn will be produced for formation of straw for direct planting cherry tomatoes. The experimental design to be used will be randomized block design with eight treatments and five replications. The treatments will be green manures intercropping on tomato, namely: bean (Canavalia ensiformis), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), dwarf mucuna (Mucuna deeringiana), mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek), white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). Besides two witnesses, one without corn stover and another with corn stover. Assessments of soil chemical characteristics, dry matter yield, nutrient uptake, C / N and N in green manures will be held. The tomato will be evaluated by the fruit yield; quantity and utilization of N from green manures recovered from the soil-plant system and the amount of N in tomato. The 2011 / 05648-3 evaluation process included a cycle of cherry tomatoes, with the extension of the project for the second cycle of this tomato is requesting this grant to prepare the soil and plant samples for analysis of nutrients and isotopic. Obligations of the grantee will also monitor the data sheets, fabricate and tables for statistical analysis and preparation of abstracts and scientific papers. (AU)