Urinary lithiasis is a prevalent disease whose incidence is increasing over the years. Epidemiological studies have shown that obesity is related to increased risk for formation of urinary calculi. There are no prospective studies linking the reduction of body weight to a reduction of metabolic lithogenic factors.Objective: to evaluate the influence of low-calorie diet on serum and urinary metabolic parameters of obese adults with urinary calculi.Method: prospective study of 50 patients, aged over 18 years, with a body mass index above 30 kg/m2 and patients with asymptomatic urinary calculi. Will be excluded from the study patients with psychiatric diagnoses other than depression, patients with inability to attend to clinical follow-up, patients with nephrocalcinosis, patients with urinary tract infection, patients with Cystinuria or hyperuricosuria and patients subjected to previous surgeries to treat urinary calculus or obesity. Each patient will be evaluated monthly on the same day by urologist and nutritionist. On the first evaluation, will be done anamnesis, anthropometric measurements of weight, height, waist, bioimpedance and requested two series, 30 days apart, of exams: total serum calcium, phosphate, sodium, potassium, urea, creatinine, uric acid, and PTH, pH venous blood, urine tests type I, culture of urine and urine tests of calcium, oxalate, phosphate, sodium, potassium, citrate, magnesium, creatinine, uric acid, cystine and computed tomography for evaluation of urinary calculus. In the second evaluation, after 30 days of the first, anthropometric measures will be repeated and bioimpedance and nutritional assessment will be made with recommendation of daily ingestion of 2000 ml of water and low-calorie diet of 16 Kcal/kg bw/day. Patients will be monitored monthly for 3 months with anthropometric measurements, bioimpedance and strengthening of nutritional recommendations. By the end of the third month, shall be subjected to two series of serum and urine tests as before the diet. The results of serum and urine tests from the beginning of dietary treatment are compared to those of end of the treatment with Student T test. P<0.05 are considered significant.
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