Breast cancer is the most common tumor type in women, and the leading cause of death of these patients is tumor progression and metastasis. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding mRNA molecules that play a key role in gene regulation. Recent studies have shown that miRNAs are directly involved in the initiation and progression of several tumor types, including breast cancer. Several miRNAs have been described as suppressors or promoters of metastases, may be associated with tumor growth and metastasis, so the inhibition of the signaling results in a significant control of cell invasion. Melatonin, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland, has presented oncostatic and antimetastatic effects by reducing the ability of migration and invasion in tumor cells. In addition, a recent study demonstrated that melatonin can modulate the expression of miRNAs in breast cancer promoting an antiproliferative action. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential therapeutic value of melatonin in modulating miRNAs in breast cancer, using an in vivo study. Athymic nude mice will receive an intravenous injection of tumor cells to the development of lung metastasis, and the action of candidate miRNAs and their target genes will be proved by using agents that will promote their silencing or overexpression, associated with melatonin treatment. The results achieved will determine the potential action of melatonin in miRNAs involved in the formation of metastasis, preventing their development by controlling miRNAs expression.
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