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Toxicity of mixtures of liquid foam generators (LGE) and gasoline: contribution to the study of fire impacts in Ultracargo petrochemical terminal (Santos, SP, Brazil)

Grant number: 16/04768-9
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Master
Effective date (Start): May 01, 2016
Effective date (End): February 28, 2018
Field of knowledge:Biological Sciences - Ecology - Applied Ecology
Principal researcher:Denis Moledo de Souza Abessa
Grantee:Gabriela Daniel
Home Institution: Instituto de Biociências (IB-CLP). Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP). Campus Experimental do Litoral Paulista. São Vicente , SP, Brazil
Associated scholarship(s):17/04661-2 - Evaluation of toxicity of Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) in mixtures with Gasoline., BE.EP.MS


During severe fires, using water-only for the fire fighting has limitations, and additive chemicals are required, such as the Aqueous Film Forming Foams (AFFF). During the firefighting at the Ultracargo Terminal (Santos, Brazil), different AFFFs were used, after dilution with estuarine waters. Consequently, large volumes of mixtures between AFFFs gasoline and/or ethanol ended drained into the aquatic ecosystems, causing massive death of fish and invertebrates. However, information on the toxicity of these compounds on marine organisms is still scarce. This study will evaluate the toxicity of different types of commercial AFFFs used in this chemical emergency (Ageofoam 2133; Cold Fire; Kidde Sintex; Argus Prime; Liovac, F-500, and unknown brand), together with gasoline alone, and will assess the toxic effects of mixtures containing each AFFF and gasoline. The assays will be carried out considering the effects on Artemia sp. nauplii, and Echinometra lucunter and Perna perna embryos. The results will be plotted in species-sensitivity curves to allow comparisons among the different species sensitivity to each tested chemical. Then, the toxicity of mixtures will be evaluated, considering the combinations of highly toxic (>EC50) and moderately toxic concentrations (EC50

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Scientific publications
(References retrieved automatically from Web of Science and SciELO through information on FAPESP grants and their corresponding numbers as mentioned in the publications by the authors)
DANIEL, GABRIELA; SILVA, ANA RITA R.; DE SOUZA ABESSA, DENIS MOLEDO; LOUREIRO, SUSANA. Fire Suppression Agents Combined with Gasoline in Aquatic Ecosystems: A Mixture Approach. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v. 40, n. 3, SI NOV 2020. Web of Science Citations: 0.
Academic Publications
(References retrieved automatically from State of São Paulo Research Institutions)
. Evaluation of the toxicity of Fire Suppression Agents in mixtures with Gasoline: contribution to the study of fire at the Ultracargo Petrochemical Terminal (Santos, SP, Brazil). 2018. Master's Dissertation - Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp). Instituto de Biociências. São Vicente São Vicente.

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