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Evaluation of the toxicity of Fire Suppression Agents in mixtures with Gasoline: contribution to the study of fire at the Ultracargo Petrochemical Terminal (Santos, SP, Brazil)

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Author(s):
Gabriela Daniel
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: São Vicente. 2018-03-21.
Institution: Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp). Instituto de Biociências. São Vicente
Defense date:
Advisor: Denis Moledo de Souza Abessa
Abstract

In environmental emergencies, and special in those caused by flammable compounds, extinguishing fires by using only water has some limitations, requiring the use of Fire Suppression Agents (FSA). In 2015, a severe fire occurred in gasoline and ethanol tanks from a petrochemical plant located in the Santos city. To combat that fire, lots of FSA were diluted in estuarine and applied on the tanks resulting in an “effluent” containing fuels and FSAs. There is a lack of information about the toxicity of FSA’s commercial formulations, but the major active principles in these formulations are the Perfluorinated Compounds (PFCs). The aim of this study was evaluate the toxic effects of different FSAs and Gasoline Water Soluble Fraction (GWSF) in isolated and binary mixtures tests. The isolated analyses were performed with Echinometra lucunter, Artemia sp. and Daphnia similis. The mixture tests were performed with Artemia sp. and D. similis, using the conceptual models for CA and IA with deviations as synergism, antagonism, DL (Dose Level-dependent) and DR (Dose Ratio). The toxicity of isolated compounds to E. lucunter showed IC50-42h was 0.11% for GWSF and values ranging from 0.0002 to 0.01% for FSA; to Artemia sp. LC50-48h was 0.11% for GWSF and values ranging from 0.02 to 0.2% for FSA. To D. similis EC50-48h was 1.10% for GWSF and ranged from 0.03 to 0.3% for FSA. For mixture responses, all tests were significantly adjusted to CA (Concentration Addition) and IA (Independent Action) models, and in some cases the results showed deviations, indicating antagonistic or synergistic interactions. For Artemia sp. antagonistic and synergistic effects occurred, depending on the concentrations and combinations of the chemicals. D. similis showed additive, antagonistic and synergistic effects, in this case was also considering concentration and combination of each chemical in the mixture. This study provided information on the effects of these compounds in the environment, in isolated forms or binary mixtures. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 16/04768-9 - Toxicity of mixtures of liquid foam generators (LGE) and gasoline: contribution to the study of fire impacts in Ultracargo petrochemical terminal (Santos, SP, Brazil)
Grantee:Gabriela Daniel
Support Opportunities: Scholarships in Brazil - Master