Dengue is the most important arboviral disease in the world, when related to morbidity, mortality and clinical implications. Recently, Chikungunya and Zika virus, which were not responsible for autochthonous infections, were now isolated in Brazil. These viruses causes endemic diseases in tropical and subtropical regions, transmitted to humans by infected Aedes mosquitoes. The characteristic symptoms of these diseases are fever, arthralgia, myalgia, headache, rash, nausea, vomiting and malaise, so that these diseases are considered differential diagnosis in cases of suspected infection with dengue virus. While the Chikungunya fever stands out arthralgia, acute and persistent, and may cause severe morbidity, in Zika fever is predominant back pain, as well as conjunctival hyperemia and maculopapular rash including palms and soles. However, other diseases such as dengue, present similar clinical symptoms to fever Chikungunya and Zika, so in addition to clinical and epidemiological data, laboratory confirmation is essential for diagnosis. Currently, you can find the Chikungunya fever and Zika fever in Brazil due to the increased number of travel between countries and continents, the existence of densely populated cities, the presence of the vector insect, as the confirmation of these virus circulations in the country. Therefore, strict surveillance, clinical aspects and differential diagnosis between these and other arboviruses aims to prevent the spread of these viruses, and allow early treatment of potentially serious diseases.
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