In order to protect submerged structures and boats, biocides as the active principle of anti-fouling paints has been widely used. These substances are released to the aquatic environment through the direct contact to surfaces where these paints were applied, possibly causing toxic effects and risks to the biota. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the potential risks caused by Chlotothalonil and Dichlofluanid (compounds of anti-fouling paints) to the cell and organism levels, verifying how different forms of exposure can influence the bioavailability and reactivity of the contaminants. Firstly, seawater and sediment will be contaminated using standard solutions and chronic and acute toxicity assays will be performed using copepods Nitrocra sp., Lytechinus variegatus embrio-larval and amphipods Tiburonella viscana. The results of these experiments will be used to determine toxic concentrations of Chlotothalonil and Dichlofluanid to be compared to natural levels and to evaluate possible scenarios due to the increasing use of these compounds. Sub-chronic assays using Perna perna (seawater) and Anomalocardia flexuosa species (sediment) will be also conducted and biochemical biomarkers (GST, GSH, Catalase, DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and cytochrome P450) will be evaluated. Assays aiming to evaluate releases of paints components will also be performed by the submerging of painted surfaces, evaluating the concentrations of the same compounds in the seawater and sediment. Organisms will be also exposed to anti-fouling paint components. This sequence of experiments intent to establish new data about the ecological potential risks of anti-fouling paint components, providing bases for the development of more environmentally friendly anti-fouling paints.
News published in Agência FAPESP Newsletter about the scholarship: