Polychaeta's phylogeny has been discussed and reviewed in the last decades, and with the advent of molecular biology the group has been shown to be invalid and polyphyletic. Similar situations occur in lower clades as is the case of members of the Nereididae family, and the genus Laeonereis deserves special attention given the conflicts of information in the literature about their real number of species and geographical distribution. Officially, four species of this genus are considered valid, being Laeonereis culveri the one of wider distribution and that comprises two different lines, tropical and temperate. The advent of molecular biology and DNA barcode brings new possibilities in the solution of divergences of this order, as already demonstrated for other metazoan groups. Thus, the present proposal aims to review the occurrence of L. culveri on the American Atlantic coast, as compared to another species of the genus of occurrence restricted to the Mediterranean Sea, Laeonereis glauca, as well as to review the taxonomy, phylogeography and phylogeny of the genus , Seeking to update their taxonomic and systematic status.
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