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Fungal and gram-negative bacteria contribution to the PM10 in the atmosphere of Metropolitan Area São Paulo.

Grant number: 18/03524-4
Support type:Scholarships abroad - Research Internship - Doctorate
Effective date (Start): September 30, 2018
Effective date (End): December 29, 2018
Field of knowledge:Physical Sciences and Mathematics - Geosciences - Meteorology
Principal Investigator:Maria de Fátima Andrade
Grantee:Ana Paula Mendes Emygdio
Supervisor abroad: Judith Chow
Home Institution: Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas (IAG). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). São Paulo , SP, Brazil
Local de pesquisa : Desert Research Institute, Reno (DRI), United States  
Associated to the scholarship:16/10594-3 - Caracterization of the primary biological aerosol in the atmosphere of metropolinan area of São Paulo, BP.DR

Abstract

Currently, there is a great deal of knowledge about the sources of the inorganic compounds of PM2.5 and PM10 for the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) atmosphere, but few studies have evaluated the contribution of organic sources to the particulate matter (PM), although most of the mass of PM2.5 is composed of organic compounds. The PM2.5 and PM10 are among the pollutants that most impact on air quality of the MASP. The biogenic components of PM can have a direct relationship with the outbreak of respiratory diseases and can also be linked to changes in climate processes. One reason for the lack of knowledge about the characterization of the organic particles in São Paulo is the analytical challenge of applying the correct methodology. There are various methods to quantify the biogenic aerosol presence in the atmosphere, without an established protocol for all situations. However, biomarkers have been under crescent use as an important methodology to determine biogenic biomass. Considering the scarce knowledge regarding the composition of the organic fraction of PM in MASP, the objectives of this work are to (i) estimate the mass concentration of fungal derivatives and gram-negative bacteria present in the São Paulo atmosphere; (ii) estimate the main sources of PM10 to the MASP, including the biological sources. To achieve these objectives, we collected ~70 samples of PM10 in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) that will be used to characterize and determine some fungal and bacteria biomarkers, as ergosterol, arabitol, mannitol and 3-hydroxy fatty acid, altogether with the inorganic fraction. These biomarkers analyses along with some inorganic (ions, elemental composition, black carbon and elemental carbon) and organic (spore number, organic carbon) analyses will help characterize the bioaerosol in the atmosphere of MASP and assess fungal and bacteria biomass contribution to ambient particulate matter. Using receptor models and statistical tools we will be able to identify distinct source-related PM10 fractions and conversion factors to convert biomarker concentrations to fungal and bacteria biomass.