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Characterization of the hyperlipidic diet model in diabetic rat female offspring: repercussions at the end of pregnancy

Grant number: 17/19185-1
Support Opportunities:Scholarships in Brazil - Scientific Initiation
Effective date (Start): June 01, 2018
Effective date (End): November 20, 2018
Field of knowledge:Health Sciences - Medicine - Maternal and Child Health
Principal Investigator:Débora Cristina Damasceno
Grantee:Carolina Amano Del Forno
Host Institution: Faculdade de Medicina (FMB). Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP). Campus de Botucatu. Botucatu , SP, Brazil

Abstract

Diabetes is a syndrome characterized by a abnormal function of the beta-pancreatic cell in synthesizing / secreting insulin or by the fact that insulin does not adequately exert its action in the peripheral tissues, leading to an increase of the circulating glucose concentration (hyperglycemia). It is estimated that 1.6 million deaths are caused by diabetes. Among the various stages of life, pregnancy is also marked by the presence of a decrease of the insulin sensitivity. At this stage, the maternal organism undergoes an endocrine and metabolic adaptation, which involves changes in insulin sensitivity, increased response and beta cell mass, a slight increase in postprandial glycemia, changes in circulating levels of phospholipids, free fatty acids, triglycerides and cholesterol. These alterations are considered physiological because they prepare the maternal organism for childbirth and breastfeeding and, in addition, for the adequate supply of fetal energy. Due to several variables and ethical reasons, many experimental models are used to investigate the diabetes and pregnancy association. In our research laboratory, a series of models for the induction of severe intensity diabetes (mimicking the glycemia of Type 1 diabetes mellitus) and mild intensity were developed (to reproduce the glycemia of type 2 DM and / or Gestational DM). These models were relevant to improve our understanding about the mechanism envolved in diabetes and pregnancy association in rats, especially considering the repercussions in the maternal organism, growth evaluation, placental and fetal development evaluation. In view of these data, it will be possible to confirm the fetal reprogramming due to the presence of an unfavorable maternal intrauterine environment caused by both severe and mild diabetes. Based on the findings that offspring of rats with mild diabetes present abnormal glycemic levels in adult life and impaired reproductive performance, and considering that there may be a parallel with the current human situation, in which children of diabetic women will also be exposed to the excess calorie diet in the postnatal life, we intend to evaluate how the fusion of these two unfavorable conditions (inadequate intrauterine and postnatal environment) will reflect on the maternal and offspring condition of these laboratory's animals. For the development of this project, we will count on the collaboration of a multidisciplinary team from our Institution and other faculties to increase our discussions and promote greater dissemination of results obtained in scientific events, extension projects and publications of papers.

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