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Integrated wheat germination management strategies aiming to rationalize the use of fungicides

Grant number: 18/00171-3
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Scientific Initiation
Effective date (Start): October 01, 2018
Effective date (End): December 31, 2020
Field of knowledge:Agronomical Sciences - Agronomy - Plant Health
Principal researcher:Waldir Cintra de Jesus Junior
Grantee:Marcela Borges Munhoz
Home Institution: Centro de Ciências da Natureza (CCN). Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCAR). Campus de Lagoa do Sino. Buri , SP, Brazil

Abstract

The wheat crop is of great importance for Brazil, and the Southwest region is the main producer of the State of São Paulo. Wheat yield can be compromised by a number of factors, with diseases having a preponderant role. Among the diseases, Giberela (Fusarium heat blight) (FHB), which can cause a reduction in production, can also greatly affect the quality of the grains due to the production of mycotoxins that represent a huge risk human and animal health. Thus, disease management is a huge challenge for global triticulture.The management of the disease is usually done using fungicides, cultivars with a certain level of resistance to disease and cultural practices. However, it is verified that a strategy used in isolation does not present, in the majority of cases, a management effectiveness. Thus, it is necessary to analyze the effect of the combination of other strategies to ensure the maintenance of crop productivity and the quality of wheat grains. In this sense, silicon has emerged as a promising alternative in the management of several diseases in different cultures, especially when used in an integrated way with other strategies, enhancing the plant defense responses against pathogens.Thus, the present research project aims to understand the structure and behavior of wheat germplasm under different combinations of integrated management, in order to generate important, practical, proven and economically feasible information about the management of this disease. 8 management combinations (CM) involving genetic resistance (2 cultivars with resistance levels other than the pathogen, moderately resistant and susceptible), whether or not fungicide (triazole + strobilurin) and silicon use (as silicate or not) of potassium), namely: CM1 = moderately resistant cultivar (MR), fungicide use (F) and potassium silicate (SP) application (MR_F_SP); CM2 = MR cultivar, use of fungicide (F) and non-application of potassium silicate (NSP) (MR_F_NSP); CM3 = MR cultivar, non-fungicide use (NF) and potassium silicate application (SP) (MR_NF_SP); CM4 = MR cultivar, non-fungicide use (NF) and non-application of potassium silicate (NSP) (MR_NF_NSP); CM5 = susceptible cultivar (S), use of fungicide (F) and application of potassium silicate (SP) (S_F_SP); CM6 = cultivar S, use of fungicide (F) and non-application of potassium silicate (NSP) (S_F_NSP); CM7 = cultivar S, non-use of fungicide (NF) and application of potassium silicate (SP) (S_NF_SP); and CM8 = cultivar S, no fungicide use (NF) and no application of potassium silicate (NSP) (S_NF_NSP). Experiments will be conducted under field conditions, in a randomized block design, in a subdivided plot, with 3 replicates.Evaluations will include the quantification of disease severity (incidence, severity and gibberell index), yield and quality of wheat grains (Fusarium and TW grain damage). Analyzes involving "linear mixed-model" will be performed to determine the main effect and interactions for each quantified variable. The data from each experiment will be analyzed separately and then, based on the results of the initial analyzes, the data can be collected and analyzed together. Each management strategy, genetic resistance (S or MR), whether or not fungicide (F or NF) and whether or not applied potassium silicate (SP or NSP) will be considered as a separate management program to reflect the options that the producer may have to manage the disease.Thus, the knowledge from this study will serve as a basis for the development of an integrated wheat germination management program. It is worth mentioning that the techniques proposed are practical and easy to use by producers.

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