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About the genesis of architectural restoration theories: from Palladio to the archaeological restoration

Grant number: 19/16329-8
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Master
Effective date (Start): June 01, 2020
Effective date (End): May 31, 2022
Field of knowledge:Applied Social Sciences - Architecture and Town Planning
Principal Investigator:Joubert José Lancha
Grantee:Maíra de Luca e Lima
Home Institution: Instituto de Arquitetura e Urbanismo de São Carlos (IAU). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). São Carlos , SP, Brazil

Abstract

In the transition between the Middle Ages and the Modern Age, in the 14th century, a period demarcated largely by modifications artistic, social, political and economic, outlining the constitution of a new artistic language. The humanists had, here, a great role in the transformations that sustained the ideological basis of the Renaissance movement, since they proposed a new reading of the Christian civilization in which they infounded a new consciousness linked to man, no more to a supreme God and center of any and all measure of the Universe. A culture in which order and freedom of human spirit predominated, of rational and nature, in which art was inspired by classical models. The intellectual that forms is inserted into a new urban setting and wishes to distinguish itself from the medieval worker connected to the craft corporations, since, now, art and science share the same scope of research and erudition. The Renaissance architects illuminating this prerogative, make the written text and drawing important allies for their theoretical and practical conception; as well as for the dissemination of their ideas and projects. In this project we will focus on the classical tratadistics, more specifically the treatise of Andrea Palladio, published her first time in 1570, verifying the importance of its contribution to fostering some principles of architectural restoration theories. In the I quattro libri dell'Architettura, Palladio not only defines a general theory but establishes, in the light of their journey and those architects and treatise predecessors, the priority issues for the formation of an architect. Among them the look (measuring and drawing) for the ruins and architecture of the past. The fourth book of the treatise, most specific object of this search, is the collection and shows, with texts and drawings, of the Roman temples that visited. When studying, observing, measuring and presenting with drawing drawings the works of classical antiquity, Palladio perpetuates and disseminates the interest of architects Archaeologists, historians, and neoclassic artists for the works of antiquity. At that moment, in the eighteenth century, archaeology emerges as a discipline and Rome becomes an international center of studies and diffusions of ideas. Later in the nineteenth century, with the restoration emerging as a discipline and being practiced systematically, the attention turns to the archaeological restoration, since it is the first to emerge (emerges in Italy and is followed by the stylistic restoration - France, romantic restoration - England and Modern restoration - Italy). Still, this first restoration goes back to classical architecture and starts to retain it based on scientific studies, excavations, graphic surveys, site study, anastilosis and distinction of materials. To establish this approximation, this research will use the research methods of history, with an emphasis on Architecture and Urbanismo, justiciating in the fact that history is made by times and periodicities that relate, in which there are ruptures and continuities, in large or small scales. (AU)