Bacteria are the main etiologic agents of pulp and periradicular pathologies, playing an important role in the induction and maintenance of inflammatory processes of the pulp and periapex. Thus, the failure of endodontic treatment may be related to the perpetuation of microorganisms in recessed areas or in periapical tissues. The surgery endodontic treatment is indicated in cases in which the periapical lesion does not regress after conventional treatment. Also, the knowledge of the microorganisms involved in treatment failures is important to conduct endodontic intervention. This study aims to identify the presence of Enterococcus faecalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Bifidobacterium dentium and Streptococcus mutans in excised periapical lesions of submitted teeth to endodontic surgery. Persistent periapical lesions will be curetted during the surgery of 10 patients, placed in liquid nitrogen. The periapical lesions will be macerated, the DNA extracted and bacterial DNA amplification performed by using the 16S gene sequence and specific primer for the species studied, in real time PCR (qPCR). Data from qPCR curves will be analyzed statistically (P<0.05). It is expected that the results obtained will contribute to the establishment of efficient clinical protocols, since the affirmation of the existence of microorganisms in the extraradicular region is still controversial, and further studies on this topic should be carried out.
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