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Essays of Enem/2012: active responses in the multiple voices

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Author(s):
Nathália Rodrighero Salinas Polachini
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: São Paulo.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Maria Inês Batista Campos; Manoel Luiz Goncalves Correa; Geraldo Tadeu Souza
Advisor: Maria Inês Batista Campos
Abstract

In this dissertation, the goal is to investigate a collection of essays from the National Secondary Brazilian Examination (Enem)/2012, analyzing the dialogic relations established by the writers from the active interaction with the reported voices to defend a point of view on the topic \"the immigration movement to Brazil in the 21st century\". Since 2009, Enem selects candidates for admission to higher education and the writing is the instrument that calls for the development of a dissertative-argumentative text. From the total of 2720 essays provided by the National Institute for Educational Studies Anísio Teixeira (INEP), the corpus was consisted of 121 essays, according to two criteria of selection: a) the performance range of 200-1000 points, respecting the diversity of scores, and b) the five Brazilian regions, marking the regional representation. The theoretical foundation of this work focuses on the dialogic language perspective of Bakhtin and the Circle, mainly, the concepts of \"utterance\" and \"quoted speech,\" and the ideological perspective of the literacy studies. Assuming the job with writing as a process of responsive understanding, this research sought to understand each text as an active response to the writing proposal and to the official discourses. In all the texts, four types of responses were identified, which served as a guide for the analysis of the heterogeneous modes of how the participants answered to the instructions of the proposal and to the issue of immigration: (i) responses to the dissertation requirement; (ii) responses to the texts of the collection, (iii) responses to the image of national identity and (iv) responses to the official history of Brazil. Within each of these responses, the results showed that the subjects used linguistic-discursive procedures for the construction of the argumentative text, such as: quotes in different compositional stages of the dissertation, paraphrases associated with synthesis, copy and imitation of the texts from the collection, characterization of Brazil as the use of slogans, the mobilization of historical allusions and narrative of colonization. These procedures were used to take controversial positions and not controversial ones, some employed with the tendency to reproduce the alien word and others with the tendency to remake them. Under a dialogical axiological perspective, the analysis of the comprehension of the inside and outside discourses of the collection found not only the active gendering of the subjects in the production of meanings, but their directions for the presumed actors and to the institutional voices within the network relationships of the writing project on the assessment of Enem. The responses could show discursive routes constructed in dialogue with different social, cultural and linguistic repertoires, signaling that the work with writing is not disconnected from the socio historical contexts of the student´s literate practices, reflecting and refracting the normative models. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 13/02185-8 - Essays of Enem/2012: active responses in the multiple voices
Grantee:Nathália Rodrighero Salinas Polachini
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Master