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Effect of light and temperature on the mammalian clock genes expression: peripheral tissues as study model

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Author(s):
Nathana Fernandes Mezzalira
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: São Paulo.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Instituto de Biociências
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Ana Maria de Lauro Castrucci; Jose Cipolla Neto; Silvia Cristina Ribeiro de Souza
Advisor: Ana Maria de Lauro Castrucci
Abstract

The life emergence and evolution on Earth were made possible by the development of precise temporal mechanisms able to adjust the physiological processes within an organism with environmental cycles, thus promoting gains in the adaptive and reproductive capacity of the individuals. In this context, light and temperature are the two most relevant time cues to reset the endogenous clock; apparently these two zeitgebers work together to keep the circadian rhythms. A wide variety of photoreceptors and photopigments evolved in order to precisely perceive the photic information provided by the environment, and recently it has been shown that the temperature detection can also be exerted by the photopigments rhodopsin and melanopsin, being mediated by TRP channels (Shen et al., 2011). We have identified B16-F10 Per1::Luc cells as a promising model for the study of light and temperature effects on peripheral clocks, since this cell line expresses both photopigments pointed as thermoreceptors in Drosophila. Our studies allowed us to demonstrate that light does not act as a synchronizing agent on those cells, which remained in free running after a 10 min pulse of blue light (650 lux). On the other hand, a temperature pulse of 2.5º C above the maintenance temperature, for 1h, adjusted Per1 gene expression, imprinting a circadian rhythm, which was not observed in the control. Based on this information, we hypothesized that the light perceived via melanopsin by the mammalian retina would lead to the regulation of the circadian temperature by the SCN, and the body temperature, in turn, could act as an inner cue for the synchronization of the peripheral tissues, having the TRP channels as mediators. To answer this question, we have used WT and TrpV1 KO mice under different light protocols and evaluated the expression of clock genes Per1, Per2, Clock and Bmal1 and TrpV1 and TrpA1 channels in peripheral tissues. We found that the adrenal gland, liver and brown adipose tissue have a typically active clock machinery, and the oscillation of clock genes observed in these tissues is significant. Interestingly, we observed that TrpV1 is expressed in those tissues, and presents a rhythmic transcription in the liver and brown adipose tissue of LD maintained animals, confirming our hypothesis that TRP channels act as mediators of light information to peripheral tissues. In face of the differences between WT and trpV1 KO animals, we suggest that the presence of the TRPV1 channel may be essential, although its degree of involvement may vary according to the tissue. In terms of TRPA1 channel, we found two results that deserve to be highlighted. Firstly, we identified in the liver of TrpV1 KO mice maintained in LD a presumable compensation of TrpA1 expression in the absence of TrpV1 and, interestingly, the brown adipose tissue does not express TrpA1 channel. Considering the findings of this study on the participation of TRP channels in responses to light and temperature, we believe we have strengthened our initial hypothesis, especially after we have demonstrated the role of TRPV1 channel, and that peripheral tissues may be synchronized by temperature changes. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 13/02131-5 - Effects of light and temperature on clock genes expression in amphibians and mammals: the pigment cell as a study model
Grantee:Nathana Fernandes Mezzalira
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Master