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Nutrition of pregnant women with sickle cell anemia, maternal complications and perinatal outcomes

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Author(s):
Letícia Vieira de Paiva
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: São Paulo.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Medicina (FM/SBD)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Roseli Mieko Yamamoto Nomura; Regina Amélia Lopes Pessoa de Aguiar; Maria de Lourdes Brizot; Sandra Fatima Menosi Gualandro; Ana Maria Kondo Igai
Advisor: Roseli Mieko Yamamoto Nomura
Abstract

The prognosis of pregnancy is influenced by the mother\'s nutritional status. It is known that, from childhood, people with sickle cell disease have deficient growth. Little is known about the evolution of maternal nutritional status in sickle cell anemia. The objective was to analyze the nutritional status of pregnant women with sickle cell anemia, assessing their weight gain, maternal dietary intake, and adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Methods: A total of 26 pregnant women with sickle cell anemia SS and 23 SC, from the start of pre-natal to the postpartum period. It was used as a control group 63 pregnant women without comorbidities. The nutritional status of pregnant women was evaluated according to body mass index, prepregnancy and late pregnancy and maternal weight gain. Dietary intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire in each quarter, characterizing the total energy, macronutrients and micronutrients intake. Maternal and perinatal complications were investigated. The significance level was 0.05 (alpha=5%). Results: The pre-pregnancy BMI was significantly lower in the SS group (median 20.3 kg/m2) compared to the SC group (22.7 kg/m2, p < 0.05) and control (23.2 kg/m2, p < 0.05). The low pre-pregnancy weight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) was significantly more frequent in the SS group (15.4%) when compared with the SC group (4.4%) and control (1.6%, p=0.009). At the end of pregnancy, the SS group had lower BMI (median 23.1 kg/m2) compared to the SC group (26.1 kg/m2, p < 0.05) and control (28.5 kg/m2, p < 0.05). Weight gain during pregnancy was lower in the SS group (median 8.0 kg) compared with the SC group (11.9 kg, p < 0.05) and control (13.7 kg, p < 0.05). The dietary intake analysis in the 2nd quarter showed that the SS and SC groups have a lower protein intake (median, 73 g/d and 69 g/d) compared to controls (96 g/d, p < 0.05); and calcium intake is lower in the SS group compared with controls (median, 410 vs. 748 g/d, p < 0.05). In the 3rd quarter, the protein intake was lower in the SS group compared with controls (median, 68 g/d vs. 93 g/d, p < 0.05); the vitamin A intake was lower in the SS group compared to controls (median, 447 vs. 940 mcg/d, p<0.05); the consumption of vitamin E was lower in the SS group (median, 6 mg/d) groups when compared to SC (10 mg/d) and control (7 mg/d, p < 0.05). The most frequent maternal complications were: a pain crisis, 58% in the SS group and 44% in SC (p=NS); urinary tract infection in 31% of SS and 17% of SC (p=NS); and pulmonary infection, 35% in the SS and 9% in the SC group (p = NS). There were significant differences in the diagnosis of fetal distress: SS (36%), SC (14%) and control (13%, p=0.032). Adverse perinatal outcomes were more common in SS and SC groups when compared to controls. Conclusions: The nutritional status of pregnant women with sickle cell disease SS is characterized by maternal malnutrition with low weight gain during pregnancy. Dietary intake of macronutrients demonstrates inadequate protein intake in the second and third quarters. Maternal complications and adverse perinatal outcomes are frequent events in pregnant women with sickle cell disease (AU)

FAPESP's process: 12/03547-8 - Nutritional status of pregnant women with sickle cell anemia and its association with obstetric complications and perinatal outcome
Grantee:Letícia Vieira de Paiva
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate