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Review and cladistic analysis of the Neotropical spider genus Tafana Simon, 1903 (Araneae, Anyphaenidae, Anyphaeninae)

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Author(s):
Luiz Fernando Moura de Oliveira
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: São Paulo.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Instituto de Biociências
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Antonio Domingos Brescovit; Facundo Martín Labarque; Lina Maria Almeida Silva
Advisor: Antonio Domingos Brescovit
Abstract

Anyphaenidae includes 56 genera and 525 species and comprises small to medium sized spiders that inhabit different environments. Anyphaenidae is divided into Amauroboidinae and Anyphaeninae, the latter characterized by chelicerae with more than four denticles in the retromargin, tracheal spiracle approximately in the middle of the abdomen or near the epigastric furrow. Currently Anyphaeninae comprises 33 genera and 346 species in the Neotropical region, in which the Aysha group stands out as the most diverse with 10 genera. These genera are characterized by having an important diagnostic characteristic, the embolic process in the male palpi. The genus Tafana Simon is recognized by a distinct projection at the base of the embolus, a distal ventral tegular process near the median apophysis in the male palpi and an anterior sclerotized margin and atrial septum in female epigina. The present work had as objective to review and analyze phylogenetically the genus Tafana and to see the relations of kinship with the species of the Aysha group. The cladistic analyzes were performed from a matrix with 21 terminals and 71 characters from a comparative morphological study. We use parsimony as the criterion of optimality. Obtaining phylogenetic inferences resulted in two most parsimonious trees, with 147 steps (CI = 53; RI = 62). According to the consensus tree, the genus Tafana is monophyletic presenting a median loop of the spermatic duct in the distal region of the tegulum, projection at the base of the embolus laminar or conical and the sinuous lateral border. Thus, the genus Tafana belongs to the Aysha group, because it presents an embolic process in the male palpi. In addition the genus Tafana Simon was reviewed and redescribed males and females of Tafana quelchii, T. silhavyi and T. straminea. We describe eleven new species. Nine species maintain their distribution to the north of South America, in Ecuador, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru and Bolivia, and two species, Tafana sp. nov. 6 and Tafana sp. nov. 7 with distribution to the north of Argentina (AU)

FAPESP's process: 15/13815-8 - Revision and cladistic analysis of the Neotropical spider genus Tafana Simon, 1903 (Araneae: Anyphaenidae, Anyphaeninae)
Grantee:Luiz Fernando Moura de Oliveira
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Master