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Assessment of clinical, bone mineral density, body composition and weight among users of progestin-only contraceptives

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Author(s):
Waleska Oliveira Modesto
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: Campinas, SP.
Institution: Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP). Faculdade de Ciências Médicas
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Luis Guillermo Bahamondes; Eliana Martorano Amaral; Anibal Eusébio Faúndes Latham; Cristina Aparecida Falbo Guazzelli; Carolina Sales Vieira
Advisor: Luis Guillermo Bahamondes
Abstract

The decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), weight gain and changes in uterine bleeding patterns are often associated with the use of progestin-only methods. Aspects not still elucidated and the moment of occurrence could harm the continuation and provoke premature discontinuation or induce morbidities. Objectives: To evaluate BMD, weight gain and discontinuation rates for bleeding disturbances of progestin-only methods. Subjects and Methods: Four studies were conducted with depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) users: A) regarding BMD and body composition (BC) from 12 months to 23 years of use; B) on weight gain among DMPA users, the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) and cooper-intrauterine device (IUD) up to 10 years of use; C) on the influence of the etonogestrel-releasing implant (ENG) upon BMD and BC up to 24 months of follow-up; and D) to evaluate the influence of two counseling strategies regarding to bleeding disorders in continuation rates of the users of the LNG-IUS, ENG-implant and IUD. Results: BMD after 12 months of DMPA use was lower at the lumbar spine compared to IUD users and 29.8% has osteoporosis among those women who had used DMPA for 10 years or more compared to 2.4% of IUD users. Regarding BC, at 12 months of use it was observed, an increase of 2 kg of fat mass and 2% in the percentage of fat mass in DMPA users; however, in the long-term use, there was no difference in the amount of fat mass compared to IUD users. The weight increased at the end of the first year was 1.3kg, 0.7kg and 0.2kg and, at 10 years, was 6.6kg, 4.0kg and 4.9kg among DMPA-, LNG-IUS- and IUD-users, respectively. Users of the ENG-implant showed a decrease in BMD at lumbar spine after 12 months of use and an increase of 2% to 2.7% of fat mass at 12 and 24 months when compared to IUD-users. Women who received routine or "intensive" counseling about the expected bleeding patterns showed no significant differences regarding the rates of discontinuation of LNG-IUS, ENG-implant and IUD. Conclusions: Users of DMPA showed a decrease in BMD at the end of the first year of use, the decrease was progressive and an increased prevalence of osteoporosis in the long-term use was observed. DMPA, LNG-IUS and IUD users showed weight gain after 10 years of use, higher in DMPA users. Fat mass increased in the first year of DMPA use; however, was not significant in the long-term when compared to IUD-users. In ENG-implant users it was found a weight gain and increase of fat mass at 24 months and a reduction in BMD after 12 months of use. The routine and "intensive" counseling showed no differences in rates of continuation in ENG-implant, LNG-IUS- and IUD-users (AU)

FAPESP's process: 11/01554-4 - Body composition and bone mineral density in users of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate compared to CIU Tcu380A Intrauterine Device
Grantee:Waleska Oliveira Modesto
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate