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The Na+,K+,2Cl- cotransporter and the gill chloride secretion in Palaemonid shrimps (Decapoda, Crustacea): molecular, physiological and evolutionary patterns.

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Anieli Cristina Maraschi
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: Ribeirão Preto.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto
Defense date:
Examining board members:
John Campbell McNamara; Alessandra da Silva Augusto; Carolina Arruda de Oliveira Freire; Tiana Kohlsdorf; Francisco de Assis Leone
Advisor: John Campbell McNamara

Owing to their evolutionary history, the shrimp family Palaemonidae includes species from widely distinct osmotic environments. Whether from marine, estuarine, or fresh waters, inhabiting stable or variable osmotic niches, these shrimps maintain the osmotic-ionic concentration of their hemolymph independently of the concentration of the external medium. These species hyper-regulate hemolymph osmolality and ions in dilute medium and fresh water and hypo-regulate this fluid in concentrated medium or seawater. The gill epithelium constitutes an important interface of ion transport, and its constituent ionocytes express an ensemble of ion transporters that enable active transepithelial ion movements. The Na+, K+, 2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) is thought to play a significant role in compensatory salt secretion. Species representative of the marine habitat (Palaemon) were collected from estuaries and tidal pools; diadromous species from the fresh water habitat (Macrobrachium) were collected near the mouths of rivers that flow into the sea, while hololimnetic species were collected in continental streams lacking the influence of brackish waters. The critical upper salinity limits (LSS50) of the marine species P. northropi and P. pandaliformis and the diadromous freshwater species M. acanthurus, M. olfersi, M. amazonicum that depend on brackish water for complete larval development, and the hololimnetic M. potiuna and M. brasiliense that complete their reproductive cycle entirely in fresh water were established. Our objectives were to characterize the mechanisms of hyper-regulation (control condition 18 S P. northropi, 17 S P. pandaliformis, fresh water <0.5 S for Macrobrachium) and hypo-regulation [short-term (24 h) and long-term 120 h) at salinities corresponding to 80% of LSS50] of hemolymph osmolality and [Cl-], gene and protein expression, and NKCC localization for immunofluorescence in the gill ionocytes; (ii) the existence of a phylogenetic pattern in these parameters; and (iii) to test hypotheses for a salinity effect on the evolution of the gene and protein expression of this symporter. The species of Palaemon had the highest tolerance limits to increased salinity, and also exhibited a greater hypo-regulatory capacity for long-term acclimation compared to the species of Macrobrachium. Among the Macrobrachium species, the LSS50 were higher in the diadromous species than in the hololimnetic species. The parameters LSS50 and osmolality and [Cl-] of the hemolymph were phylogenetically structured, similarities being shared by closely related species. The hyper-regulatory capacity of hemolymph [Cl-] correlated with NKCC gene expression in the gills, while NKCC protein synthesis appears to be associated with hyper-regulation of hemolymph osmolality. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that the NKCC was located in both cell types that constitute the gill epithelium, the pillar cells and the septal cells. The location of the NKCC in the lower flanges and perikarya of the pillar cells and throughout the septal cells, did not differ among species, and also did not differ among control conditions or short and long-term exposure at high salinity. These results together also suggest the importance of the NKCC in salt uptake by the gills. When in high salinity there was an increase in NKCC protein synthesis in the gills of the Macrobrachium species, except for M. potiuna. This increase can be explained by the phylogenetic proximity among those species, which excludes adaptive inferences. There was no change in NKCC mRNA transcription, which suggests possible post-transcriptional regulation. The reconstruction of the evolutionary history of osmoregulation, incorporating the concept of phylophysiology, revealed the existence of mechanisms at the molecular, cellular and systemic levels that have evolved accompanying the cladogenetic events of the Palaemonidae during their radiation and occupation of different osmotic niches. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 13/23906-5 - The Na+, K+, 2Cl- transporter and gill chloride secretion in palaemonid shrimps (Decapoda, Crustacea): molecular, physiological and evolutionary patterns
Grantee:Anieli Cristina Maraschi
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate