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Tissue engineering: the effect of the association between cells and Biosilicate® with two crystalline phases (BioS-2P) on bone repair

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Author(s):
Emanuela Prado Ferraz
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: Ribeirão Preto.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto (PCARP/BC)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Adalberto Luiz Rosa; Márcio Mateus Beloti; Maria Helena Raposo Fernandes; Roberta Okamoto
Advisor: Adalberto Luiz Rosa
Abstract

The increasing clinical demand for bone regeneration has driven significant efforts to develop new biomaterials including those for tissue engineeringbased therapies. In this context, bioglasses emerges as a good alternative, but their use has been limited mainly due their poor mechanical properties. To improve these mechanical properties without affecting biocompatibility, a novel bioactive glass-ceramic of the P2O5-Na2O-CaO-SiO2 system, named Biosilicate® with two cristallyne phases (BioS-2P) was developed. However, the effects of these two phases on BioS- 2P biological behavior have not yet been evaluated. Thus, the aims of this study were to investigate the BioS-2P capability of inducing in vitro mesenquimal stem cell differentiation (MSC) towards osteoblasts; the BioS-2P capability to increase in vitro activity of osteoblasts derived from rat bone marrow at early stages of differentiation (OBs) and osteoblasts from rat cell line UMR- 106 (UMRs); and the BioS-2P capability to drive and induce bone formation in vivo, associated or not with cells. Bone marrow cells harvested from rat femurs were cultured either in growth media to obtain MSCs or in osteogenic media to obtain OBs. MSCs, OBs and UMRs were cultured on discs of BioS-2P, Bioglass® 45S5 (45S5) and tissue culture polystyrene (Control). For in vivo evaluations, 5-mm rat calvarial surgical defects were filled with BioS-2P with or without MSCs or OBs. Data were compared by non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Student Newman- Keuls test and the significance level was set at 5%. MSCs were characterized by presenting high percentage of CD29 and CD90 surface markers and low percentage of CD31, CD34, CD45 and CD106 surface markers. Osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs was detected by gene expression of bone markers alkaline phosphatase (ALP), runt-related transcritption factor 2 (RUNX2), bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OC). MSCs cultured on Bios-2P discs under non-osteogenic conditions exhibited a decrease on cell proliferation and an increase on ALP activity and gene expression of bone markers ALP, RUNX2, osterix (OSX), bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4), osteopontin (OPN) and OC, confirming its osteoinductive potential similar to 45S5. Also, BioS-2P increased the OBs and UMRs activity, similar to 45S5. OBs cultured on Bios-2P discs presented a decrease in cell proliferation and an increase on ALP activity and gene expression of bone markers RUNX2, OSX, BMP-4, OPN and OC. The large-scale analysis of over 23,000 genes showed that the BioS-2P induced overexpression of genes positively related to osteoblastic activity and repression of genes negatively related with its activity, compared with control. At least in part, the increase on OBs activity was associated to the modulation of two main signaling pathways, the mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) and the Canonical Wnt, and the modulation of microRNAs expression. These findings were corroborated by UMRs grown on BioS-2P, which produced mineralized matrix and exhibited increased expression of the ALP, RUNX2, dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1) and OPN proteins, than on control. BioS-2P scaffolds (5 mm diameter and 2 mm heigh, presenting 76 ± 5% of total porosity, with poros size ranging from 100 to 800 µm) implanted in calvarial defects promoted new bone formation in close contatc to BioS-2P, both on periphery and in the center of the defect. The computed microtomography morphometry showed no difference between the evaluated parameters bone volume, bone volume / total volume, bone surface, surface / bone volume, number of trabeculae, trabecular separation and trabecular thickness, measured at 4, 8 and 12 weeks. MSCs and OBs were seeded into the scaffold (with efficiency of incorporation 90% e 81%, respectively) and they remained on the defects for 14 days. After 8 weeks, the same pattern of bone formation was observed, however, the combination of BioS-2P with cells did not increase the amount of new bone. The results showed the BioS-2P ability to induce osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs and to stimulate osteoblastic activity, resulting in new bone formation in vivo. However, the combination of BioS-2P with MSCs and OBs was not able to increase bone formation and induce the repair of bone defects. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 12/23525-9 - TISSUE ENGINEERING: EFFECT OF THE COMBINATION OF CELLS AND BIO-SCA ON BONE DEFECT REPAIR
Grantee:Emanuela Prado Ferraz
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate