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Atividade antimicrobiana de extratos de plantas do cerrado brasileiro contra Streptococcus mutans

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Author(s):
Luciana Aranha Berto
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: Piracicaba, SP.
Institution: Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP). Faculdade de Odontologia de Piracicaba
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Pedro Luiz Rosalen; Yoko Oshima Franco; Cristiane de Cássia Bergamaschi; Gilson Cesar Nobre Franco; Karina Cogo Müller
Advisor: Francisco Carlos Groppo; Pedro Luiz Rosalen
Abstract

Despite the continuous development of knowledge, prevention and treatment of dental caries, the disease continues to have a high prevalence in Brazil and worldwide. For this reason, there is been a strong interest for new pharmacological agents that can assist biofilm control, acting against the main microorganism associated with the development of caries, Streptococcus mutans. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the extract of four plants from Brazilian cerrado (and its fractions) against S. mutans UA159. Hydroalcoholic extracts of Lantana camara (Lc), Copaifera langsdorffii (Cl), Psidium guajava (Pg) and Cochlospermum regium (Cr) were evaluated by means of antimicrobial tests for the determination of minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal (MBC) concentrations, inhibition of adhesion and pH-drop of S. mutans. The crude extract of four plants showed antimicrobial potential and were fractionated by polarity gradient, and 4 fractions were obtained for each extract: hexane (FHx), chloroform (FCh), ethyl acetate (FAc) and aqueous (FAq) fractions. These fractions were subjected to previously mentioned tests to determine the active fraction(s) of each extract. For the subsequent evaluation step in biofilm, 6 active fractions were selected: Lc-FHx and Lc- FCl, both with MIC = 15.6 µg/ml, and yield of 9.5% and 17.5%, respectively; Cl-FHx, which showed MIC = 15.6 µg/ml, an inhibitory activity on the pH drop in solution and yield of 21%; Pg-FHx with MIC = 125 µg/ml, 93.4% of inhibition of adhesion in the concentration of 62.5 µg/ml and yield of 2.0%; Cr-FHx, with MIC = 125 µg/ml, an inhibitory activity against pH drop and a yield of 1.0% and Cr- Aq, which showed a high MIC value, however, it inhibited 86.7% of bacterial adhesion at a concentration of 62.5 µg/ml, and had a yield of 32%. The selected fractions were subjected to additional tests as bacterial viability (time-kill), inhibition of formation and pH drop in biofilms of S. mutans, using hydroxyapatite disks. Three active fractions stood out in tests on biofilm: Lc-FHx which decreased the viability of the microorganism and biofilm formation in the concentration of 20xMIC, Lc- FCx, which reduced biofilm formation in the 20xMIC concentration, and Cl ¿ FHx, which reduced biofilm formation in the 20xMIC concentration and interfered with the viability of the microorganism at the two tested concentrations (10xMIC and 20xMIC). The chemical composition of active fractions was analyzed by GC-MS. The other fractions tested in biofilm did not differ from the negative control (vehicle). None of the evaluated fractions affected the pH drop by biofilm. In conclusion, Lantana camara and Copaifera langsdorffii fractions with low or intermediate polarities showed potential to generate new naturally occurring anticarie compounds and presented antimicrobial activity against biofilms formed by S. mutans (AU)

FAPESP's process: 10/01868-6 - Antimicrobial activity of plants from Brazilian Cerrado against Streptococcus mutans.
Grantee:Luciana Aranha Berto
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate