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Hypocholesterolemic action of hydrolyzed cowpea beans (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

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Author(s):
Marcelo Rodrigues Marques
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: São Paulo.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Saúde Pública (FSP/CIR)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Jose Alfredo Gomes Areas; Deborah Helena Markowicz Bastos; Daniel Carvalho Pimenta
Advisor: Jose Alfredo Gomes Areas
Abstract

Introduction- The cardiovascular diseases, due to mortality and associated pathological damage, are considered a serious public health problem. Elevated plasma cholesterol levels are part of the most important risk factors for the development of these diseases. Recent research indicated that Cowpea protein promotes the reduction of cholesterol levels in hamsters and humans, possibly by the action of bioactive peptides from the diet. However, the route by which cholesterol is inhibited by peptides, as well as the processing effects on biological action are still unknown. Objective - To verify the hypocholesterolemic pathway of hydrolyzed cowpea and the effect of thermal processing on this property. Methods - Part of wholemeal flour was subjected to isolation of protein, and the remaining of the grains was subjected to retort and extrusion cooking processes. After autoclaving the grain, protein was also isolated from the flour. Subsequently, the isolated protein from wholemeal and cooked flour was subjected to in vitro hydrolysis. The extrusion process was optimized according to response surface methodology using the expansion ratio of extrudates as the dependent variable. The extruded bean flour was subjected to in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis without the isolation of the protein. The three hydrolysates were subjected to ultrafiltration and and fractions smaller than 3 kDa was used for inhibition assays of the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) and for inhibition assay of micellar solubilization of cholesterol to evaluate their effect on the liver and enteral cholesterol metabolism respectively. Results - The hydrolysates from the protein isolates showed similar. At higher doses of protein (above 70 mg/mL), the inhibition was stable at around 75 per cent. Regarding the hydrolyzate of bean flour extruded as it increases the amount of protein inhibitory capacity decreases. The hydrolysates were able to inhibit the micellar solubilization of cholesterol between 5 and 39 per cent. The thermal processing was the determining factor to decrease the solubility of cholesterol in vitro. Conclusion The hydrolysates of cowpea are able to inhibit the enzyme HMGR micellar solubilization and reducing cholesterol in vitro, even after being thermally processed beans. The ability of hydrolysates insolubilize cholesterol was improved by cooking in an autoclave and by extrusion (AU)

FAPESP's process: 11/04179-0 - Identification of hypocholesterolemic peptides from extruded cowpea beans (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)
Grantee:Marcelo Rodrigues Marques
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Master