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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

Environmental Mapping of Paracoccidioides spp. in Brazil Reveals New Clues into Genetic Diversity, Biogeography and Wild Host Association

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Author(s):
Arantes, Thales Domingos [1, 2] ; Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro [2, 3] ; Teixeira, Marcus de Melo [4, 5] ; Gimenes Bosco, Sandra de Moraes [1] ; Bagagli, Eduardo [1]
Total Authors: 5
Affiliation:
[1] Univ Estadual Paulista UNESP, Inst Biociencias Botucatu, Dept Microbiol & Imunol, Botucatu, SP - Brazil
[2] Univ Fed Rio Grande Norte UFRN, Inst Med Trop IMT RN, Natal, RN - Brazil
[3] Univ Fed Rio Grande Norte UFRN, Ctr Biociencias, Dept Biol Celular & Genet, Natal, RN - Brazil
[4] Univ Brasilia UnB, Dept Biol Celular, Brasilia, DF - Brazil
[5] Northern Arizona Ctr Valley Fever Res, Translat Genom Res Inst Tgen North, Flagstaff, AZ - USA
Total Affiliations: 5
Document type: Journal article
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases; v. 10, n. 4 APR 2016.
Web of Science Citations: 19
Abstract

Background Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii are the etiological agents of Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), and are easily isolated from human patients. However, due to human migration and a long latency period, clinical isolates do not reflect the spatial distribution of these pathogens. Molecular detection of P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii from soil, as well as their isolation from wild animals such as armadillos, are important for monitoring their environmental and geographical distribution. This study aimed to detect and, for the first time, evaluate the genetic diversity of P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii for Paracoccidioidomycosis in endemic and non-endemic areas of the environment, by using Nested PCR and in situ hybridization techniques. Methods/Principal Findings Aerosol (n = 16) and soil (n = 34) samples from armadillo burrows, as well as armadillos (n = 7) were collected in endemic and non-endemic areas of PCM in the Southeastern, Midwestern and Northern regions of Brazil. Both P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii were detected in soil (67.5%) and aerosols (81%) by PCR of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region (60%), and also by in situ hybridization (83%). Fungal isolation from armadillo tissues was not possible. Sequences from both species of P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii were detected in all regions. In addition, we identified genetic Paracoccidioides variants in soil and aerosol samples which have never been reported before in clinical or armadillo samples, suggesting greater genetic variability in the environment than in vertebrate hosts. Conclusions/Significance Data may reflect the actual occurrence of Paracoccidioides species in their saprobic habitat, despite their absence/non-detection in seven armadillos evaluated in regions with high prevalence of PCM infection by P. lutzii. These results may indicate a possible ecological difference between P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii concerning their wild hosts. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 12/03233-3 - Detection of Paracoccidioides spp. in environmental samples and differentiation of the complex P. brasiliensis of the P. lutzii species by Nested PCR and in situ hybridization.
Grantee:Thales Domingos Arantes
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate
FAPESP's process: 12/14047-6 - Detection and molecular differentiation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii in environmental samples
Grantee:Eduardo Bagagli
Support type: Regular Research Grants