Azevedo, Thiago S.
Aguiar, Breno S.
Total Authors: 6
 Inst Butantan, Dept Parasitol, Sao Paulo, SP - Brazil
 Univ Estadual Paulista, Dept Geog, Sao Paulo - Brazil
 Univ Sao Paulo, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Sao Paulo - Brazil
 Inst Med Trop, Sao Paulo, SP - Brazil
Total Affiliations: 4
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases;
Web of Science Citations:
Background Brazil is a tropical country that is largely covered by rainforests and other natural ecosystems, which provide ideal conditions for the existence of many arboviruses. However, few analyses have examined the associations between environmental factors and arboviral diseases. Thus, based on the hypothesis of correlation between environment and epidemiology, the proposals of this study were (1) to obtain the probability of occurrence of Oropouche, Mayaro, Saint Louis and Rocio fevers in Brazil based on environmental conditions corresponding to the periods of occurrence of the outbreaks; (2) to describe the macro-climatic scenario in Brazil in the last 50 years, evaluating if there was any detectable tendency to increase temperatures and (3) to model future expansion of those arboviruses in Brazil based on future temperature projections. Methodology/Principal findings Our model assessed seven environmental factors (annual rainfall, annual temperature, elevation, seasonality of temperature, seasonality of precipitation, thermal amplitude, and daytime temperature variation) for their association with the occurrence of outbreaks in the last 50 years. Our results suggest that various environmental factors distinctly influence the distribution of each arbovirus, with temperature being the central determinant of disease distribution in all high-risk areas. These areas are subject to change, since the average temperature of some areas has increased significantly over the time. Conclusions/Significance This is the first spatio-temporal study of the Oropouche, Mayaro, Saint Louis, and Rocio arboviruses, and our results indicate that they may become increasingly important public health problems in Brazil. Thus, next studies and control programs should include these diseases and also take into consideration key environmental elements. (AU)