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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

Morphological and biochemical characterization of the cutaneous poison glands in toads (Rhinella marina group) from different environments

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Author(s):
Mailho-Fontana, Pedro Luiz [1] ; Antoniazzi, Marta Maria [1] ; Sciani, Juliana Mozer [2] ; Pimenta, Daniel Carvalho [2] ; Barbaro, Katia Cristina [3] ; Jared, Carlos [1]
Total Authors: 6
Affiliation:
[1] Inst Butantan, Lab Cell Biol, Ave Vital Brasil 1500, BR-05503000 Sao Paulo - Brazil
[2] Inst Butantan, Lab Biochem & Biophys, Sao Paulo - Brazil
[3] Inst Butantan, Lab Immunopathol, Sao Paulo - Brazil
Total Affiliations: 3
Document type: Journal article
Source: Frontiers in Zoology; v. 15, NOV 23 2018.
Web of Science Citations: 3
Abstract

BackgroundAmphibian defence against predators and microorganisms is directly related to cutaneous glands that produce a huge number of different toxins. These glands are distributed throughout the body but can form accumulations in specific regions. When grouped in low numbers, poison glands form structures similar to warts, quite common in the dorsal skin of bufonids (toads). When accumulated in large numbers, the glands constitute protuberant structures known as macroglands, among which the parotoids are the most common ones. This work aimed at the morphological and biochemical characterization of the poison glands composing different glandular accumulations in four species of toads belonging to group Rhinella marina (R. icterica, R. marina, R. schneideri and R. jimi). These species constitute a good model since they possess other glandular accumulations together with the dorsal warts and the parotoids and inhabit environments with different degrees of water availability.ResultsWe have observed that the toads skin has three types of poison glands that can be differentiated from each other through the morphology and the chemical content of their secretion product. The distribution of these different glands throughout the body is peculiar to each toad species, except for the parotoids and the other macroglands, which are composed of an exclusive gland type that is usually different from that composing the dorsal warts. Each type of poison gland presents histochemical and biochemical peculiarities, mainly regarding protein components.ConclusionsThe distribution, morphology and chemical composition of the different types of poison glands, indicate that they may have different defensive functions in each toad species. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 14/15334-4 - The skin and the defense of toads (Bufonidae) against predators and desiccation
Grantee:Pedro Luiz Mailho Fontana
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate