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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

Tracking the Evolutionary Stage of Protostars through the Abundances of Astrophysical Ices

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Rocha, W. R. M. [1, 2, 3] ; Pilling, S. [1]
Total Authors: 2
[1] Univ Vale Paraiba, Inst Pesquisa & Desenvolvimento, Ave Shishima Hifumi 2911, BR-12244000 Sao Jose Dos Campos, SP - Brazil
[2] Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Oster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K - Denmark
[3] Univ Copenhagen, Ctr Star & Planet Format, Oster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K - Denmark
Total Affiliations: 3
Document type: Journal article
Source: ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL; v. 896, n. 1 JUN 2020.
Web of Science Citations: 0

The physical evolution of young stellar objects (YSOs) is accompanied by an enrichment of the molecular complexity, mainly triggered by the heating and energetic processing of astrophysical ices. In this paper, a study of how the ice column density varies across the protostellar evolution has been performed. Tabulated data of H2O, CO2, CH3OH, and HCOOH observed by ground- and space-based telescopes toward 27 early-stage YSOs were taken from the literature. The observational data show that ice column density and spectral index (alpha), used to classify the evolutionary stage, are well correlated. A 2D continuum radiative transfer simulation containing bare and ice-covered grains at different levels of cosmic-ray processing were used to calculate the spectral energy distributions in different angle inclinations between face-on and edge-on configurations. The H2O:CO(2)ice mixture was used to address the H2O and CO(2)column density variation, whereas CH3OH and HCOOH are by-products of the virgin ice after energetic processing. The simulated spectra were used to calculate the ice column densities of YSOs in an evolutionary sequence. As a result, the models show that the ice column density variation of HCOOH with alpha can be justified by envelope dissipation and energetic processing of ice. On the other hand, the ice column densities are mostly overestimated in the cases of H2O, CO(2)and CH3OH, even though the physical and cosmic-ray processing effects are taken into account. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 15/10492-3 - Study about the chemical evolution of astrophysical ices in the vicinity of young stellar objects employing experimental data in the infrared and computational modeling codes
Grantee:Will Robson Monteiro Rocha
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Post-Doctorate
FAPESP's process: 16/22018-7 - Production of complex organic molecules on Solar System icy moons induced by swift ions (cosmic ray analogs).
Grantee:Sergio Pilling Guapyassu de Oliveira
Support type: Scholarships abroad - Research
FAPESP's process: 16/23054-7 - Formation of complex molecules on astrophysical ices in star forming regions triggered by UV and X-rays by employing the ProDiMo code and laboratory data
Grantee:Will Robson Monteiro Rocha
Support type: Scholarships abroad - Research Internship - Post-doctor