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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

Evolutionary Diversification of Banded Tube-Dwelling Anemones (Cnidaria; Ceriantharia; Isarachnanthus) in the Atlantic Ocean

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Author(s):
Stampar, Sergio N. [1] ; Maronna, Maximiliano M. [2] ; Vermeij, Mark J. A. [3, 4] ; Silveira, Fabio L. D. [1] ; Morandini, Andre C. [1]
Total Authors: 5
Affiliation:
[1] Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Biociencias, Dept Zool, Sao Paulo - Brazil
[2] Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Biociencias, Dept Genet & Biol Evolut, Sao Paulo - Brazil
[3] Univ Amsterdam, Inst Biodivers & Ecosyst Dynam, Amsterdam - Netherlands
[4] Carmabi Fdn, Willemstad, Curacao - Neth Antilles
Total Affiliations: 4
Document type: Journal article
Source: PLoS One; v. 7, n. 7 JUL 16 2012.
Web of Science Citations: 21
Abstract

The use of molecular data for species delimitation in Anthozoa is still a very delicate issue. This is probably due to the low genetic variation found among the molecular markers (primarily mitochondrial) commonly used for Anthozoa. Ceriantharia is an anthozoan group that has not been tested for genetic divergence at the species level. Recently, all three Atlantic species described for the genus Isarachnanthus of Atlantic Ocean, were deemed synonyms based on morphological simmilarities of only one species: Isarachnanthus maderensis. Here, we aimed to verify whether genetic relationships (using COI, 16S, ITS1 and ITS2 molecular markers) confirmed morphological affinities among members of Isarachnanthus from different regions across the Atlantic Ocean. Results from four DNA markers were completely congruent and revealed that two different species exist in the Atlantic Ocean. The low identification success and substantial overlap between intra and interspecific COI distances render the Anthozoa unsuitable for DNA barcoding, which is not true for Ceriantharia. In addition, genetic divergence within and between Ceriantharia species is more similar to that found in Medusozoa (Hydrozoa and Scyphozoa) than Anthozoa and Porifera that have divergence rates similar to typical metazoans. The two genetic species could also be separated based on micromorphological characteristics of their cnidomes. Using a specimen of Isarachnanthus bandanensis from Pacific Ocean as an outgroup, it was possible to estimate the minimum date of divergence between the clades. The cladogenesis event that formed the species of the Atlantic Ocean is estimated to have occured around 8.5 million years ago (Miocene) and several possible speciation scenarios are discussed. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 10/50174-7 - Systematics, life cycle and reproductive patterns of jellyfishes (Cnidaria: Medusozoa: Cubozoa and Scyphozoa) in the Baixada Santista (São Paulo, Brazil)
Grantee:André Carrara Morandini
Support type: BIOTA-FAPESP Program - Regular Research Grants
FAPESP's process: 12/01771-8 - Evolution in Scyphozoa: integrating morphology, molecular data and biology
Grantee:Sérgio Nascimento Stampar
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Post-Doctorate