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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

Toxic Leukoencephalopathies, Including Drug, Medication, Environmental, and Radiation-Induced Encephalopathic Syndromes

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Author(s):
Rimkus, Carolina de Medeiros [1] ; Andrade, Celi Santos [1] ; Leite, Claudia da Costa [1] ; McKinney, Alexander M. [2, 3] ; Lucato, Leandro Tavares [1]
Total Authors: 5
Affiliation:
[1] Univ Sao Paulo, Fac Med, Dept Radiol, Sao Paulo - Brazil
[2] Univ Minnesota, Dept Radiol Neuroradiol, Minneapolis, MN - USA
[3] Hennepin Cty Med Ctr, Minneapolis, MN - USA
Total Affiliations: 3
Document type: Journal article
Source: SEMINARS IN ULTRASOUND CT AND MRI; v. 35, n. 2, p. 97-117, APR 2014.
Web of Science Citations: 12
Abstract

Toxic leukoencephalopathies can be secondary to the exposure to a wide variety of exogenous agents, including cranial irradiation, chemotherapy, antiepileptic agents, drugs of abuse, and environmental toxins. There is no typical clinical picture, and patients can present with a wide array of signs and symptoms. Involvement of white matter is a key finding in this scenario, although in some circumstances other high metabolic areas of the central nervous system can also be affected. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging usually discloses bilateral and symmetric white matter areas of hyperintense signal on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images, and signs of restricted diffusion are associated in the acute stage. In most cases, the changes are reversible, especially with prompt recognition of the disease and discontinuation of the noxious agent. Either the MR or clinical features may be similar to several nontoxic entities, such as demyelinating diseases, leukodystrophies, hepatic encephalopathy, vascular disease, hypoxic-ischemic states, and others. A high index of suspicion should be maintained whenever a patient presents recent onset of neurologic deficit, searching the risk of exposure to a neurotoxic agent. Getting to know the most frequent MR appearances and mechanisms of action of causative agents may help to make an early diagnosis and begin therapy, improving outcome. In this review, some of the most important causes of leukoencephalopathies are presented; as well as other 2 related conditions: strokelike migraine attacks after radiation therapy syndrome and reversible splenial lesions. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 12/00398-1 - White Matter Evaluation with Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques at High Field Strength and Multiparametric Correlation with Volumetry and Phosphorus Spectroscopy in Patients with Epilepsy and Malformations of Cortical Development
Grantee:Celi Santos Andrade
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Post-Doctorate