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Emission control and evaluation of dry deposition of fine particles emitted by biomass combustion process

Grant number: 18/00697-5
Support type:Regular Research Grants
Duration: July 01, 2018 - June 30, 2020
Field of knowledge:Engineering - Mechanical Engineering
Principal Investigator:Maria Angélica Martins Costa
Grantee:Maria Angélica Martins Costa
Home Institution: Instituto de Química (IQ). Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP). Campus de Araraquara. Araraquara , SP, Brazil
Assoc. researchers:Arnaldo Alves Cardoso ; João Andrade de Carvalho Junior ; Kelly Johana Dussán Medina

Abstract

Brazil was considered the largest producer and exporter of sugar and the second largest of ethanol in 2016, demonstrating the importance of this sector in the Brazilian economy. However, to meet the energy demands of this activity, the surplus of sugarcane's bagasse in the process is used as a fuel in boilers and its burning produces a significant quantity of gaseous pollutants and particulate matter, which is highly harmful to the environment and to the human health. The use of different types of biomass and bagasse as biofuel in industries and distilleries have intensified in the present times, therefore emissions from burning this fuel have become more expressive. A broad environmental assessment is needed because the combustion of sugarcane bagasse and the chemical processes that occur in the atmosphere favor the formation of finer particulate matter. The emissions must be assessed from the atmosphere, immissions and pollution control at industrial level, taking into account air quality, emission rates, chemical changes in the atmosphere and concentrations and distribution of size of pollutants and its process of deposition. At industrial level, the proper control of emissions of gases and particles into the atmosphere must be effective, using adequate collection equipment, capable of treating the effluents at the exit of the boilers. In the immission process, due to dry deposition for example, the determination of the chemical composition of particulate matter in different sizes is essential to know the type, intensity of the emission sources and climate changes in a certain region. In this way, taking into consideration the expansion of sugarcane planting, sugar and alcohol production and the use of bagasse in the energy sector, the objective of this project is to profusely assess the emissions of particulate matter through an environmental and punctual analysis in the scrubber Venturi as emission control equipment. Considering that, it presents higher collection efficiency values for fine particles and the advantage of treating gaseous emissions simultaneously. The development of this project will generate results of emissions of these pollutants generated by the use of biofuels, showing scenarios and possible environmental damages. Indicating operating variables in the optimization of more effective equipment in the control of fine and ultrafine particles and to indicate the presence of compounds that are biomass' burning markers into the atmosphere. In addition, the development of this project intends to insert a new line of research in the Department of Biochemistry and Chemical Technology of the Institute of Chemistry of UNESP-Araraquara to expand studies on the monitoring and control of environmental pollution. Complementing new theoretical and practical knowledge of the area of environmental control for Chemical Engineering course, recently installed in this institute, at postgraduate and undergraduate level. This project is linked to the Fapesp project in 2016 / 23209-0, which will use the entire structure of permanent equipment for the combustion process of biomass and pollution control equipment. (AU)