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Detection of viral load and analysis of the specific immune response to viral peptides in the cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood of multiple sclerosis patients

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease involving the central nervous system (CNS), typically in young adulthood. The revised criteria help with earlier diagnosis of definite MS. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is very important for the detection of chronic inflammation (oligoclonal bands) and exclusion of other causes. Extensive studies have suggested that MS evolves a dysregulated immune response by environmental exposures in genetically susceptible individuals. When the tolerance to particular self-antigens is broken, misguided immune responses can cause damage. Recent studies have provided evidence that a variety of other immune cells (CD4 Th1 and regulatory cells) seem to be involved in disease pathogenesis by inducing or controlling the immune response. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a major role in the effector phase and in the downregulation of the immune responses. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) produce large amounts of type 1 interferons in response to viruses or oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs). The treatment with interferon-² reduces the frequency and severity of clinical exacerbations. However, little is known about involvement of PDCs in multiple sclerosis.The purpose is to study the involvement of the viral load (herpes virus) in the effector phase and downregulation of the immune responses on a cohort of MS patients at different stages of the disease, and to evaluate the immune response testing for PDCs as well as for T cells reactivity to viral peptides in peripheral blood and CSF, trying to elucidate whether biomarkers could help to predict and monitor neurological decline and correlate with neuroimaging data. (AU)

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Scientific publications
(References retrieved automatically from Web of Science and SciELO through information on FAPESP grants and their corresponding numbers as mentioned in the publications by the authors)
VON GLEHN, FELIPE; FARIAS, ALESSANDRO S.; PENALVA DE OLIVEIRA, AUGUSTO C.; DAMASCENO, ALFREDO; LONGHINI, ANA LEDA F.; OLIVEIRA, ELAINE C.; DAMASCENO, BENITO P.; SANTOS, LEONILDA M. B.; BRANDAO, CARLOS OTAVIO. Disappearance of cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands after natalizumab treatment of multiple sclerosis patients. MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, v. 18, n. 7, p. 1038-1041, JUL 2012. Web of Science Citations: 35.

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