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Evaluation of the bioaccumulation of the copper present in the structure of the dye azul turquesa 15, as well as evaluation of aquatic toxicity, mutagenicity and genotoxicity of this dye in comparison to reativo azul 4


The colors have always exerted a fascination on humans, however, the dyes can be toxic, mutagenic and resistant to many degradation processes found in sewage water treatment and wastewater. It is estimated that about 10-15% of dyes are lost during the dyeing process and released into the environment, reaching the water bodies. This fact is of great concern, considering that human exposure to dyes occurs through consumption of contaminated water and contact with skin. Additionally, some of these compounds contain metals in their chemical structure, such as copper, which are used to improve the properties of the dyes. However, it is known that these elements can bioaccumulate in organisms and lead to various deleterious effects to the ecosystem. Despite the large number of commercially available dyes, studies on the toxicity of these substances are scarce and little is known about their mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. This project proposes to assess the bioaccumulation potential of the copper present in the molecular structure of dye Azul Turquesa 15 (AT 15) in Dafnideos, as well as, to evaluate the overall aquatic toxicity, mutagenicity and genotoxicity of AT15 compared with Azul Reativo 4 (AR4) both widely used by the textile industry. For this, we will use acute and chronic toxicity assay using Daphnia similis, the Comet assays using human skin fibroblasts and the Ames test for both dyes. For the Salmonella assay, we will employ the strains of Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100 and YG1041, with and without exogenous metabolic activation (S9) in order to assess not only the original mutagenicity of the dyes, but also to evaluate the biotransformation products. The project results will provide useful tools for the development of safer dyes as well as providing information about the impact of the use of dyes to the ecosystem. (AU)

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